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Transcript
Chapter 4: Multithreaded
Programming
Operating System Concepts – 9th Edition
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013
Multicore Programming
n
Multicore or multiprocessor systems putting pressure on programmers, challenges include:
l
Dividing activities
l
Balance
l
Data splitting
l
Data dependency
l
Testing and debugging
n
Parallelism implies a system can perform more than one task simultaneously
n
Concurrency supports more than one task making progress
l
n
n
Single processor / core, scheduler providing concurrency
Types of parallelism
l
Data parallelism – distributes subsets of the same data across multiple cores, same operation on
each
l
Task parallelism – distributing threads across cores, each thread performing unique operation
As # of threads grows, so does architectural support for threading
l
CPUs have cores as well as hardware threads
l
Consider Oracle SPARC T4 with 8 cores, and 8 hardware threads per core
Operating System Concepts – 9th Edition
4.*
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013
Multithreading Models
n
Many-to-One
n
One-to-One
n
Many-to-Many
Operating System Concepts – 9th Edition
4.*
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013
Many-to-One
n
Many user-level threads mapped to single kernel thread
n
One thread blocking causes all to block
n
Multiple threads may not run in parallel on muticore system
because only one may be in kernel at a time
n
Few systems currently use this model
n
Examples:
l
Solaris Green Threads
l
GNU Portable Threads
Operating System Concepts – 9th Edition
4.*
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013
One-to-One
n
Each user-level thread maps to kernel thread
n
Creating a user-level thread creates a kernel thread
n
More concurrency than many-to-one
n
Number of threads per process sometimes restricted due to overhead
n
Examples
l
Windows NT/XP/2000
l
Linux
l
Solaris 9 and later
Operating System Concepts – 9th Edition
4.*
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013
Many-to-Many Model
n
Allows many user level threads to be mapped to many
kernel threads
n
Allows the operating system to create a sufficient
number of kernel threads
n
Solaris prior to version 9
n
Windows NT/2000 with the ThreadFiber package
Operating System Concepts – 9th Edition
4.*
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013
Pthreads
n
May be provided either as user-level or kernel-level
n
A POSIX standard (IEEE 1003.1c) API for thread creation and synchronization
n
Specification, not implementation
n
API specifies behavior of the thread library, implementation is up to development of the library
n
Common in UNIX operating systems (Solaris, Linux, Mac OS X)
Operating System Concepts – 9th Edition
4.*
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013
Java Threads
n
Java threads are managed by the JVM
n
Typically implemented using the threads model provided by underlying OS
n
Java threads may be created by:
l
Extending Thread class
l
Implementing the Runnable interface
Operating System Concepts – 9th Edition
4.*
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013
Implicit Threading
n
Growing in popularity as numbers of threads increase, program correctness more difficult with explicit
threads
n
Creation and management of threads done by compilers and run-time libraries rather than programmers
n
Three methods explored
n
l
Thread Pools
l
OpenMP
l
Grand Central Dispatch
Other methods include Microsoft Threading Building Blocks (TBB), java.util.concurrent package
Operating System Concepts – 9th Edition
4.*
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013