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High Middle Ages
10 pts. During the High Middle Ages, which institution had the most power in society? The Church
**Identify one reason why the kings and nobles were gaining power during this time as well. The end of the
barbarian invasions allowed them to consolidate power
20 pts. As a result of the Magna Carta, this body was set up in England so that the king might more easily consult
with the people about taxes. Parliament
** What was the name of the equivalent body in France? Estates General
30 pts. During the High Middle Ages, Russia accepted this sect of Christianity. Eastern Orthodox
**What event precipitated this alignment? A Russian leader married the sister of the Byzantine Emperor
40 pts. Identify two important trends that signified the end of the early middle ages and the beginning of the high
middle ages. The climate warmed up, population expanded, barbarian invasions stopped, new developments in
agriculture, the use of a money economy and commercial capitalism
**In what year did the High Middle Ages begin? 1000 CE
50 pts. Identify two reasons why the Holy Roman Empire’s name is misleading. They weren’t holy because they
had conflict with the church (investiture conflict), they weren’t an empire because they had very little power over
the German princes who ruled the various territories in the area, they weren’t Roman because the main area they
claimed was in Germany and they only held Rome for a very short time
**What did the two Fredericks do that weakened the power of the Holy Roman Empire? They attempted to take
over Rome but were defeated by the Church
60 pts. French society and the parliament was divided into these groups during the High Middle Ages. The Three
**What were the three Estates? Nobles, Clergy, Townspeople
70 pts. Explain two changes that occurred in the realm of education and knowledge during the High Middle Ages.
Universities were built, people studied subjects other than theology, scholasticism encouraged people to try and
reconcile reason and faith
**Scholasticism attempted to reconcile the words of the Bible with the writings of this Greek philosopher.
Late Middle Ages
10 pts. What was a major cause of the Great Famine of 1315? Decrease in temperatures and a spate of bad
**True or False: According to most scientists, the global warming we are experiencing right now seems to be
generally in line with other patterns of global warming and cooling. False: It is much hotter than it ever has been
before according to many scientists.
20 pts. During the European Schism, there were two popes. From which two countries were those popes from?
France and Italy
**What was one consequence of the European schism? A decline in the authority of the church
30 pts. What causes the Black Death? A bacteria carried in fleas on rats
**In approximately what year did the Black Death first hit Western Europe? 1347
40 pts. What special role did the Inquisition serve in Spain that it did not serve as much in the rest of Europe? It
served to monitor recently converted Jews and Muslims to ensure that they were consistent with the Catholic faith.
**What led to the creation of the Inquisition in the first place? The Cathar heresy…The Church wanted to stomp
out the Cathar Heresy (which it did). The Inquisition continued for years after the Cathars were wiped out. (As a
side note, the Cathars had some interesting doctrinal differences from the Catholic Church. They were pacifists,
believed that married life and having children was sinful- so encouraged complete monasticism, rejected most of
the Catholic sacraments and criticized the pope and the Church for its corruption.)
50 pts. Identify two major effects of the Black Death on Europe. Significant loss of population, decline of
feudalism, increased freedom and wages for peasants, decrease in the price of food, loss of faith in the church
**Why did the black death end feudalism? Because the need for labor was such that peasants could demand more
freedom and wages
60 pts. For the test, it will be important to distinguish between the High and Late Middle Ages. Identify two major
events that started in the Late Middle Ages. The Black Death, The Hundred Years War, The Mini Ice Age, the
Great Famine
**Identify two important trends/events in the High Middle Ages. Agricultural revolution, energy revolution, rise of
universities, increase in the power of guilds, Building or Romanesque and then later Gothic Cathedrals, building of
many of the great castles, rise in philosophy and scholasticism, Courtly Love, the Crusades, rise of the
merchant/burgher class, growth of cities, etc.
70 pts. By the end of the Late Middle Ages, feudalism had essentially ended. Identify at least two reasons why
feudalism ended. The rise of the cities as a result of increased trade weakened the power of the nobles; the Black
Death killed a lot of peasants, and so there was a strong demand for labor…so serfs could demand freedom/wages
or just take their own land; the new type of warfare developed during the 100 years war decreased the need for
nobles and knights because standing armies could be used instead.
**As a result of increased trade, this medieval economic system of self-sufficiency of small communities ended.
Wars and Violence
10 pts. This court system tried people for heresy, often relying on torture for forced confessions. The Inquisition
**Identify one other purpose of the Inquisition in Europe. It killed people political dissenters.
20 pts. Identify the major war that dominated the Late Middle Ages. The Hundred Years War
**The Hundred Years War occurred during which two centuries? The 14th and 15th centuries (1337 – 1453)
30 pts. Which individual almost single-handedly turned around the Hundred Years War and led the French to
victory over the English? Joan of Arc
**What is the fate of Joan of Arc? She is killed in the English Inquisition for being a heretic
40 pts. Name one change in military strategy that occurred during the Hundred Years War. English began relying
on the longbow and foot soldiers instead of knights. Later, firearms (cannons) were incorporated into warfare.
**What effect did the Hundred Years War have on nobles? They had less status because they weren’t seen as
necessary for battle.
50 pts. Identify two instances in which Jews were killed in the Middle Ages. The German Crusade, the takeover of
Jerusalem in the First Crusade, the Black Death.
**Give two reasons why Jews may have been killed during the Black Death. They were blamed for poisoning the
wells, Europeans may have seen this as a way to cancel debts and gain money by stealing from the Jews they killed.
60 pts. Identify the main cause of the Hundred Years War. Conflict between England and France over territory in
what is now modern day France.
**Why did England have territory in France? Because William of Normandy (before he conquered England) was a
noble in France and because other English royalty had come from France.
70 pts. Identify two long term effects of the Hundred Years War. Kings used standing armies, which made them
more powerful, foot-soldiers became more strategically important than knights, France unites and becomes more
centralized, the “new monarchies” with stronger centralized authority emerges, feudalism declined as a result of
the decline in power of the nobles.
**Identify one feature of these new monarchies. They had standing armies and were relatively free from having to
cater to the nobles. Centralized control by a king
10 pts. What was the code of knightly conduct developed during the High Middle Ages? Chivalry
**Identify one reason why a code of chivalry might have benefited Europe? Because it controlled knight’s
behavior when they didn’t have much to do (after the barbarian invasions stop)
20 pts. What notion was popularized by Eleanor of Aquitaine? Courtly Love
**How was courtly love different than the concepts of romantic love that had come before? How is it different
from today? It asserted that romantic love (even-or especially-if never fulfilled) had a positive impact on society
and was not sinful (as the church had asserted.) Today, we believe that romantic love should ideally end in
marriage, whereas during the High Middle Ages, romantic love occurred in spite of marriage (and outside of it).
Courtly love encouraged what we would call extra-marital “emotional affairs” which are generally seen as
harmful to relationships today.
30 pts. These organizations developed in the Middle Ages in order to protect professionals from competition from
others, to provide support to one another, and to ensure quality product. Guilds
**What conflict during the High Middle Ages encouraged an increase in trade? The Crusades
40 pts. What is the Spanish term for those individuals who had converted? Conversos
**Which two individuals united Spain when they married? Isabella and Ferdinand
50 pts. What was the type of architecture developed during the High Middle Ages? Gothic
**What was one aspect of Gothic architecture? They were very tall with pointed arches, lots of stained glass
windows and Walls supported with flying buttresses
60 pts. What is the term for a language used in a particular region? Vernacular
**During the High Middle Ages, some literature was being written in vernacular as opposed to this language. Latin
70 pts. What is an interdict? An order by the pope to forbid priests from giving the sacraments to the people.
**The interdict was meant to convince these individuals to follow the church. Political rulers
10 pts. These individuals beat themselves in public in order to do penance for the sins that supposedly caused the
Black Death. Flagellants
**The Flagellants then encouraged people to turn against this group of people who were massacred in large
numbers. The Jews
20 pts. What was the common first name of both of the kings who got into major trouble with the Church during
the High Middle Ages? Henry
** Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire had to stand in the snow barefoot as a result of this conflict. The
investiture conflict
30 pts. As a result of an increase in trade in the High Middle Ages, settlements of these people, led to the eventual
rise of cities during the medieval period (especially along the coasts). Merchants
**Why would this trend eventually weaken feudalism? Because these new cities were eventually able to argue for
more political and economic autonomy from local feudal lords. This weakened the traditional aristocracy of
40 pts. Which man took over the land of England in 1066? William the Conqueror
**What was the name of the battle in which William won England? Battle of Hastings
50 pts. This king signed the Magna Carta in 1215. King John I
**What did the king promise in the Magna Carta? To consult with the nobles before passing taxes. This limited the
power of the King.
60 pts. France began to centralize under this leader. Phillip II
**Approximately how many years after England did France really start to centralize? About 100. Philip starts to
centralize in 1180, whereas William takes over and starts to centralize England in 1066.
70 pts. This Czech leader was burned alive for criticizing the Catholic Church. Jon Hus
**Identify one thing that Hus criticized the Church for. Indulgences, Crusades, Corruption, power of the pope
10 pts. Point to France on the map (A)
**Point to Portugal on the map. (D)
20 pts. Which city was the capital of the Byzantine Empire? Constantinople
**Point to Constantinople on the map. (C)
30 pts. What was Germany called during the Middle Ages? The Holy Roman Empire
**Point to the Holy Roman Empire on the map. (B)
40 pts. Which country was formed out of a union between Castile and Aragon? Spain
**Point to Spain on the map. (F)
50 pts. Point to the English Channel on the map. (I)
**Point to Rome on the map(G)
60 pts. Which island in Europe did the Black Plague first come to? Sicily
**Point to Sicily on the map (L)
70 pts Point to the Balkans on the map. (E)
**Which three religious groups have significant populations in the Balkans? Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholics,
10 pts. Identify one technology that was essential to the Energy Revolution of the high middle ages. Windmill and
**What was the primary task that these mills did during the Middle Ages? Grind grain
20 pts. Why were more people able to move to the cities in the High Middle Ages? Because agriculture had
become more efficient
**Identify one way that agriculture became more efficient. The Carruca (or iron tipped plow), 3 field system, new
horse collar, use of the horse shoe, etc.
30 pts. Identify one of the two countries in Western Europe that remained disunited during the Middle Ages. The
Holy Roman Empire/Germany and Italy
**In what century did both of the countries unify? The 19th
40 pts. What did Henry II of England and Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire have in common besides being
named Henry? They both were in conflict with the Catholic Church and the pope.
**Who won in both of those conflicts? The Church.
50 pts. Identify two reasons why the Church lost power in the Late Middle Ages. The Great Schism made people
question the infallibility of the pope, the Black Death made people question the value of the Church, the Hundred
Years War made people question whether there was something deeply wrong with Europe because Christian
nations were warring against one another.
**Identify two groups that gained power in the Late Middle Ages. Peasants and Kings…although to vastly
different degrees!
60 pts. In what year was the Magna Carta signed? 1215
**Point to the country where the Magna Carta was signed. England (Letter M)
70 pts. Identify one way in which the first schism was similar to the second schism and one way in which they were
different. Both schisms were fundamentally over who had power in the Church. The second schism was much
shorter, no new sects were created in the second schism, and there were no doctrinal differences in the second
**Approximately how many years after the first schism did the second schism occur? 300. The first schism
happened in 1054, the second in 1378