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Transcript
Mr. Billante
Astronomy
2011-12
Astronomy: Study Guide – Final Exam
I.
Chapter 1: Introduction to Astronomy
a. What is Astronomy?
b. Where are we in the Universe?
c. Difficulties Studying Astronomy
d. Scientific Method
e. Theories
f. S. I. System
g. Metric Prefixes
h. Conversion Factors
i. Scientific Notation
j. Astronomical Units (AU)
k. When is Now?
l. History of the Universe
m. Why Study Astronomy
II.
Chapter 2: Origins of Astronomy
a. Archaeoastronomy
b. Greek Astronomy
i. Plato
ii. Eudoxus
iii. Aristotle
iv. Eratosthenes
v. Ptolemy
c. Uniform Circular Motion
i. Centripetal Acceleration
ii. Circular Speed
d. Copernicus
e. Tycho Brahe
f. Kepler’s 3 Laws of Planetary Motion
i. Kepler’s 3rd law equation
g. Galileo
i. Discoveries
ii. Dialogo and Trial
h. Modern Astronomy
III.
Chapter 3: Newton and Forces
a. Isaac Newton and his discoveries
b. Newton and Galileo
c. Newton’s Laws of Motion
i. First Law (Law of Inertia)
ii. Second Law (F = ma)
iii. Third Law (Action-Reaction Pairs)
d. Weight
e. Fundamental Forces in Nature
f. Universal Gravitation
i. Equation
ii. Inverse Square Law
g. Acceleration due to Gravity on a Planet (g)
i. Acceleration due to gravity away from the surface(g/)
h. Orbital Velocity
i. Escape Velocity
j. Satellites
i. Equations (3)
k. Newton’s Version of Kepler’s 3rd Law
l. Microgravity
m. Einstein’s Theory of Gravity
i. Special Relativity
ii. General Relativity
IV.
Chapter 4: The Night Sky
a. Movement of the Night Sky
b. Stars
i. Naming them
ii. Favorite Stars
c. Brightness of Stars
d. Magnitude Scale
e. Apparent Visual Magnitude
f. Flux and Intensity
g. Magnitude and Intensity of star light
i. Equations (2)
h. The Celestial Sphere
i. Angular Distance
i. Arc Minutes
ii. Arc Seconds
j. Precession of the Earth
k. Cycles of the Sun
l. The Seasons
i. Equinoxes
ii. Solstices
m. Motion of the Planets
n. Influences on the Earth’s climate
i. Milankovitch Hypothesis
V.
Chapter 5: The Sun and Stars
a. Atoms and Star Light
b. The Current Model of the Atom
c. The Solar Atmosphere
d. Energy from the Sun
e. Matter to Energy
i. E = mc2
f. Nuclear Fusion in the Sun
g. Sun Spots and Electromagnetic Waves
h. Measuring the Distance to Stars
i. Triangulation
ii. Distance Formula: d = 1/p
iii. Parsecs (pc)
i. Brightness and Distance of Stars
i. Absolute Magnitide
ii. Formulas (2)
1. mv – Mv = -5 + 5log(d)
2. d = 10(mv –Mv +5)/5
j. Life Cycle of Stars
k. H-R Diagram
l. Giants, Super Giants and Dwarfs
FINAL EXAM