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Kail/Cavanaugh’s Human Development: A Life-Span View 5e Chapter 2 Learning Objectives In the Beginning: 23 Pairs of Chromosomes Define chromosomes and genes. Explain how chromosomes and genes carry heredity information from one generation to the next. Discuss common problems and consequences involving chromosomes. Explain the difference between autosomes and sex chromosomes. Explain the difference between genotype and phenotype. Explain the difference between being homozygous and heterozygous for a particular trait. Explain the difference between dominant alleles, recessive alleles, and incomplete dominance. Explain how the effects of heredity and environment can be studied using twins and adopted children. Describe how phenylketonuria (PKU) and Huntington’s disease are inherited. Describe the disorders associated with extra autosomes or abnormal sex chromosomes. Describe behavioral genetics and polygenic inheritance. Describe how twin studies, adoption studies, and the isolation of DNA segments are used to determine the role of heredity and environment. Describe the four general properties that describe the relation between genes and environment, including the concepts of reaction range, niche-picking, and nonshared environmental influences. From Conception to Birth Describe the timing and the major events associated with the period of the zygote. Describe in vitro fertilization and how reproductive technologies are related to eugenics. Describe the timing and the major events associated with the period of the embryo. Describe which layers of the embryo will become which bodily system. Describe the location and functions of the amnion, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord, and placenta. Describe the difference between cephalocaudal and proximodistal growth. Describe the timing and the major events associated with the period of the fetus. Describe the behavior of the fetus and how it is related to later behavior. Influences on Prenatal Development Explain how maternal age can affect prenatal development. Describe how maternal nutrition is related to prenatal development. Explain how maternal stress affects prenatal development. Describe the effects of thalidomide on prenatal development. Describe the effects of cigarette smoking on prenatal development. Explain the effects associated with alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy. Describe the effects associated with the consumption of aspirin, caffeine, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and nicotine by the mother during pregnancy. Describe the effects associated with contracting AIDS, cytomegalovirus, genital herpes, rubella, and syphilis during pregnancy. Describe the effects of exposure to lead, mercury, and X-rays during pregnancy. Describe how ingesting PCBs affects development. Kail/Cavanaugh’s Human Development: A Life-Span View 5e List the four general principles concerning the effects of teratogens on prenatal development. Describe how genetic counseling can help prevent some inherited disorders. Describe the procedures used in ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling and the kind of information each provides about prenatal development. Describe how various problems of prenatal development can be treated with administration of drugs to the fetus, fetal surgery, and genetic engineering. Labor and Delivery List and describe the events associated with the three stages of labor. List some of the benefits associated with prepared childbirth classes. Describe the circumstances under which home delivery is safe. Describe the problems associated with anoxia, prematurity, and low birth weight. Explain the causes of and possible preventions of the high infant mortality rate in the U.S.