Name: _________________________________ Period: _______________________ BIOLOGY 1 TEST SEMESTER FINALS REVIEW SHEET CHAPTERS 1-7 Chapter 1 1. Put the steps of the scientific method in order: theory, hypothesis, observations, experimenting, conclusions 2. What is a hypothesis? 3. What is a theory? 4. What is homeostasis? 5. What is the difference between magnification and resolution when using the microscope? 6. If the eyepiece on a microscope is 10x and the low power objective lens is 10x, the total magnification is: Chapter 2 7. All process in your body are driven by ________________________ reactions 8. What is the function of enzymes? 9. What is a substrate? 10. What is catalyst? 11. What element do all organic compounds contain? 12. What are the 4 organic compounds found in living organisms? 13. What are the elements found in carbohydrates? ______What are some examples of carbohydrates? 14. What are the elements found in lipids? ________What are examples of lipids? __________________ What are lipids made up of? _______________ acids 15. What are the elements found in proteins? _______ What are proteins made up of? 16. What are examples of nucleic acids? Chapter 3 17. What is the relationship between surface area and volume of a cell? 18. What is the definition of a cell? 19. What are the 3 parts of the cell theory? 20. What is the function of the cell membrane? 21. What does a phospholipid bilayer look like? 22. The bilayer has nonpolar head and polar tails. True or False 23. What is selectively permeable? 24. What characteristics do the proteins found in the cell membrane have? 25. Why is surface area important for a cell’s size? 26. Compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes. 27. What is an organelle? 28. What is the function of the ER? 29. What organelle packages and distributes materials through the cell? 30. Where in the cell is ATP produced? 31. Where are proteins made? 32. What is a vacuole? 33. What is a lysosome? 34. Look at diagrams of plant and animal cells to remind yourself what the organelles look like. You will need to label them on the test. 35. What are 3 differences between plant and animal cells? 36. What is the difference between diffusion and osmosis? 37. Why must sugar be moved into the cell by facilitated diffusion? 38. Why is the difference between active and passive transport? Chapter 4 39. What are the products of photosynthesis? 40. Adenosine triphosphate is ___________ and is a synonym for ______________. 41. What are the products of respiration? 42. Where does photosynthesis occur? 43. Where does respiration occur? 44. What color is reflected by plant pigments? 45. In photosynthesis, there are light DEPENDENT reactions that take place in STAGE 1 of photosynthesis and there are light INDEPENDENT reactions that take place in STAGE 2 of photosynthesis: Stage 1 a. The light dependent reactions occurs when light strikes the _________________ inside the chloroplast. b. ____________ get excited and move from Photosystem _____ to Photosystem ______ c. Water splits and produces ______________ for us to breathe and gives us H + (protons) d. More sunlight is absorbed and 2 energy-carrying molecules are made which are: ________________ and ____________. Stage 2 a. This light independent stage is called the _____________________ cycle. b. In this cycle, NADPH and ATP are used to make _______________________for the plant cell. The C from carbon dioxide (CO2) is what helps make the C in C6H12O6 46. So the PRODUCTS of PHOTOSYNTHESIS again are: ________________ and____________ 47. Where in ATP is energy stored? In bonds of ATP How is it released? 48. In cellular respirations which occurs in the MITOCHONDRIA of both plant and animal cells: a. b. c. Glycolosis occurs first then The Krebs cycle IF OXYGEN IS PRESENT Electron transport chain 49. What happens during glycolysis? Sugar is broken down into ________________________ acid 50. Aerobic means contains __________________________; without oxygen is _____________________ 51. The Krebs cycles produce: 52. The Electron Transport Chain produces: 53. So the PRODUCTS of CELLULAR RESPIRATION are: ___________ and ___________ 54. What is the process called when organic compounds are broken down in the absence of oxygen? 55. What is lactic acid? Chapters 5, 6, and part of 7 56. How does DNA become compact to fit inside chromosomes? 57. What is the function of DNA in a cell? 58. What is a centromere? 59. How many chromosomes do you have? 60. What does diploid mean? 61. What does haploid mean? 62. What is the end result of mitosis? 63. What is the end result of meiosis? 64. What is the sequence of the cell cycle? 65. What are the 3 parts of interphase? 66. What is the sequence of mitosis? 67. Be familiar with mitosis pictures—be able to put them in correct order. 68. A cell spends most of its life in the S phase of the cell cycle. True or 69. What is crossing over? What stage does it occur in? ________________ 70. How does it ensure that variation in a species continues? 71. Gametes are sex cells. True or False False 72. Define dominant. 73. Define recessive. 74. What is the difference between homozygous and heterozygous? 75. What is the difference between genotype and phenotype? 76. Define codominance. Give an example. 77. Define incomplete dominance. Give an example. 78. The law of segregation is: 79. The law of independent assortment is: 80. What does it mean for a trait to be sex-linked? What are 3 examples of sex-linked conditions? 81. What is a karyotype? 82. How many pairs of autosome chromosomes do you have? How many sex chromosomes do you have? 83. XX is a _____________, XY is a ____________ 84. Cancer results from uncontrolled cell _______________________. 85. Review punnett squares and pedigrees. 86. Why do you have 2 alleles for each trait? 87. The law of _______________________ states that alleles separate from another and you get only one allele from each parent so if your dad’s alleles are Aa you either get ________ or ________ 88. The law of independent assortment states that traits are inherited _____________________ of one another and one trait has no effect on another. THE TEST IS TRUE/FALSE AND MULTIPLE CHOICE ON SCANTRON. YOUR BINDER IS THE BEST TOOL TO SEARCH THROUGH FOR ANSWERS TO THE STUDY GUIDE AND FOR STUDYING….THAT’S WHY YOU PUT IT TOGETHER.