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Transcript
Unit 5: Rome
Chapter 14: Roman Beginnings & Republic
1. The first group of people to establish a civilization in Rome were the
_________________________________.
2. The Etruscans established a _____________________ rule by King/Queen.
3. In 509 BCE, the ____________________ overthrew the Etruscans and
established an ____________________.
4. The Roman Republic looked like this…
l




Consul
Two Rulers
1 year term
elected by assembly
Head of government and army

Senate
300 members

Assembly
Commoners and merchants

known as Patricians

Known as Plebeians

wealthy landowners—aristocrats

Select consuls

controlled foreign and financial
policies

Make laws

Elect tribunes to govern in the
provinces

advised consul on all matters




Judicial
Called Praetors
8 judges chosen for one year by the Assembly
created two civil and criminal courts
created courts to govern over provinces
5. The Assembly created Rome’s 1st laws called the ________________________.
6. The Roman capital was located on the peninsula of ______________________.
7. Roman military power was based on a well trained and well organized army
divided into ____________________________.
8. In an effort to control the ____________________________ world, Rome
engaged in three wars with Carthage.
9. These wars were called the ____________________________.
10. In winning the Punic Wars, Rome became the dominant power in the world and
controlled the entire Mediterranean region.
11. Rome’s conquest did have some negative effects, including:
a. small farms disappeared
b. large estates were created in which slaves did most of the work.
c. Most farmers had to leave their land and move to the cities
d. The patricians and plebeians fought a civil war over land
12. Some Roman leaders in the Senate tried to solve Rome’s problems by doing the
following:
a. The Gracchi brothers looked to give land to the poor and provide free
wheat to the hungry.
b. Gaius Marius looked to give power to the army.
c. Lucius Sulla tried to give more power to the Senate.
d. Julius Caesar had himself crowned permanent dictator of Rome and
pushed through many social reforms.
13. Julius Caesar was very popular with the people of Rome, but members of the
Senate feared his power and they assassinated him on March 15, 44 BCE (Ides of
March).
14. After Caesar’s death, power was divided between Mark Antony, Octavian, and
Lepidus.
15. In 31 BCE, Octavian was crowned the first emperor (Caesar) of Rome. Rome’s
government changed from a republic to an empire.
Chapter in Review
Directions: Define the following terms.
1. Republic
2. patricians
3. plebeians
4. consuls
5. veto
6. tribunes
7. legions
8. dictator
9. triumvirate
Questions
1. A consul is
A) one of two officials who led the Roman Republic.
B) a form of government in which citizens vote for their leaders.
C) a wealthy, upper class citizen.
D) an ordinary citizen of Rome.
E) a temporary ruler having all the powers of a king.
2. A Republic is
F) one of two officials who led the Roman Republic.
G) a form of government in which citizens vote for their leaders.
H) a wealthy, upper class citizen.
I) an ordinary citizen of Rome.
J) a temporary ruler having all the powers of a king.
3. A patrician is
K) one of two officials who led the Roman Republic.
L) a form of government in which citizens vote for their leaders.
M) a wealthy, upper class citizen.
N) an ordinary citizen of Rome.
O) a temporary ruler having all the powers of a king.
4. A dictator is
P) one of two officials who led the Roman Republic.
Q) a form of government in which citizens vote for their leaders.
R) a wealthy, upper class citizen.
S) an ordinary citizen of Rome.
T) a temporary ruler having all the powers of a king.
5. A plebeian is
U) one of two officials who led the Roman Republic.
V) a form of government in which citizens vote for their leaders.
W) a wealthy, upper class citizen.
X) an ordinary citizen of Rome.
Y) a temporary ruler having all the powers of a king.
6. Rome was located at the center of a long, narrow
E) island.
F) peninsula.
G) subcontinent.
7. Who killed Julius Caesar?
A) his wife
C) a group of senators
H) continent.
B) the emperor of Rome
D) a soldier from Gaul
8. Which rival in the western Mediterranean did Rome fight in the Punic Wars?
e. Athens
f. Carthage
g. Egypt
h. Macedonia
9. "I was the adopted son of the great Julius. I defeated all of my rivals and became
the first emperor of Rome." The person speaking is
a. Mark Antony
b. Octavian
c. Marcus Brutus
d. Gaius Cassius
10. The Twelve Tables were important in Rome because they
a. laid the basis for the Roman Republic
b. freed all the slaves in Rome
c. gave Rome its first written code of laws
d. gave the emperor the status of a god
11. What was the basic cause of the Punic Wars?
e. Rome's acceptance of Christianity
f. Carthage's invasion of Italy
g. Rome's rivalry with Carthage for control of the western
Mediterranean
h. Carthage's support for the plebeians against the patricians
12. Which modern European country occupies the homeland of the ancient
Romans?
e. Germany
f. Italy
g. France
h. England
13. Which body of water connected Rome with North Africa and Europe?
a. Atlantic Ocean
b. Persian Gulf
c. Mediterranean Sea
d. Black Sea
14. As a result of the Punic Wars, Rome
e. lost its overseas empire
f. lost control over most of Italy
g. was burned to the ground
h. won control over the western Mediterranean
Chapter 15: The Roman Empire
Vocabulary
1. emperor
2. census
3. gladiator
4. inflation
5. barter
Chapter 15 Outline
1. Octavian, better known as Augustus Caesar, became the first emperor of Rome in
27 BCE.
2. For the first 200 years of the Roman Empire, Rome went through a golden age.
This period was known as the Pax Romana.
3. During the Pax Romana…
 Trade increased
 Laws were standardized
 All children were allowed to attend school until at least 12 years old
 Free games were staged in the circus Maximus and Colosseum.
4. Around 200 CE, the Pax Romana ended and Rome went into a decline for the
following reasons:
 Too Big!!!!
 Rome became overcrowded causing pollution, crime, and unemployment.
 Rome experienced a string of bade emperors.
 From 235-284 CE, Rome had 19 emperors. During the Pax Romana, Rome
had only 5 Emperors.
 Inflation
 Mercenaries in the army
 Poverty
 Germanic invasions
5. From 284-337 CE, two good emperors ruled over Rome—Diocletian and
Constantine I.
6. Diocletian…
 Reduced inflation
 Created jobs
 Fortified their borders
 Restored people’s faith in government
 Ruled by Divine Right
 Reorganized the empire into two parts: East (Byzantium) and West (Rome)
7. Constantine I…
 Defined very rigid social classes.
 Defeated the Germans in a major battle in Europe.
 Wealthy landowners increased the efficiency of their estates
 Issued the Edict of Milan giving religious freedom throughout the empire.
8. The last Roman Emperor was overthrown in 476 CE by the Visigoths of
Germany.
Chapter in Review
1. During the decline of Rome, the Roman army
A) was made entirely up of Romans.
B) won most of its battles.
C) was made up of mercenaries.
D) expected no pay.
2. According to legend, why did Constantine convert to Christianity?
E) There was a food shortage.
F) He wanted to stop Christians from being killed.
G) He saw a vision of a cross on the sun.
H) The barbarians invaded Rome.
3. The Roman Colosseum was
A) a structure made from bringing water from a distant source.
B) a giant arena.
C) a part of the Roman Empire used for profit.
D) the emperor who issued laws to protect women, children, & slaves.
E) the emperor who proclaimed himself a god.
4. During a day’s events at a Roman circus,
A) public executions were not permitted.
B) Humans only fought with other humans.
C) Most of the gladiators were free citizens seeking fame and fortune.
D) Humans fought both humans & animals.
5. A mercenary
A) Is a hired soldier.
B) Means a drop in the value of money.
C) Is a person who spreads a religious message.
D) Looks to help the poor.
6. In the 400s A.D., Germanic tribes
A) looted Rome twice.
B) Burned Rome to the ground.
C) Enslaved the Roman citizens.
D) Captured Constantinople.
7. Why did Diocletian divide the Roman Empire into two parts?
A) to stop wars within the empire.
B) To make it easier to rule.
C) To send wealth from Rome to Constantinople.
D) Because he had lost interest in the west.
8. Which group was responsible for the destruction of the Roman Empire in the
west?
a. Byzantines
b. Germanic tribes
c. Huns
d. Persians
Chapter 16: Christianity
Vocabulary
1. scriptures
2. Messiah
3. apostles
4. Priest
5. diocese
6. bishop
7. archbishop
8. heresy
Chapter 16 Outline
1. The birth of Jesus marked the beginning of the Common Era (CE).
2. When Jesus was about 30, he began to preach about God’s love for all people.
3. Roman leaders grew leery of the popularity of Jesus and condemned him to death
for heresy.
4. The Apostle Paul was responsible for continuing the message of Jesus after his
death. This helped make Christianity a world religion.
5. Until Constantine issued the Edict of Milan, Christians were heavily persecuted
against in Rome. They were crucified, imprisoned, and fed to lions for
entertainment.
6. In 313 CE, Constantine made Christianity legal and ended the the persecution of
Christians.
7. In 392 CE, Christianity was made the official religion of Rome by the Emperor
Theodosius.
8. By the end of the 500s, Christianity had an organized church, a New Testament,
and developed a Bible (OT & NT).
9. By 600 CE, the Christian Church created the position of Pope, and Latin became
the official language.
10. In 1054, Christianity has its first official split. It was known as the Great Schism.
11. Greek speaking Christians did not recognize the Pope as the head of the church.
They broke away and formed the Greek or Eastern Orthodox Church.
12. Christian laws are the 10 Commandments, their book is the Holy Bible, and their
Gospels were written by disciples Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. These
Gospels made of the New Testament. Other stories of Christianity were written in
letters called Epistles.
Chapter in Review
1. Whose writings helped turn Christianity into an organized religion?
E) Nero
F) Hadrian
G) Jesus
H) Paul
2. A Gospel is
A) a follower of Jesus.
B) A person who chooses to die for a cause.
C) A letter about Christianity.
D) A savior who brings justice and freedom.
E) The writing of a disciple.
3. An epistle is
F) a follower of Jesus.
G) A person who chooses to die for a cause.
H) A letter about Christianity.
I) A savior who brings justice and freedom.
J) The writing of a disciple.
4. The Messiah is
K) a follower of Jesus.
L) A person who chooses to die for a cause.
M) A letter about Christianity.
N) A savior who brings justice and freedom.
O) The writing of a disciple.
5. A martyr is
P) a follower of Jesus.
Q) A person who chooses to die for a cause.
R) A letter about Christianity.
S) A savior who brings justice and freedom.
T) The writing of a disciple.
6. A disciple is
U) a follower of Jesus.
V) A person who chooses to die for a cause.
W) A letter about Christianity.
X) A savior who brings justice and freedom.
Y) The writing of a disciple.
7. Why did the Roman governor condemn Jesus to death?
A) He had been accused of teaching that God was greater than the emperor.
B) He was organizing the common people to overthrow the emperor.
C) He had been accused of stealing from the rich.
D) His followers refused to work.
8. Because the Romans emperors sent many Christians to their deaths,
E) the Roman empire was revived.
F) Many Romans admired Christians.
G) The emperors’ moral standing improved.
H) The emperor was condemned to hell!
9. According to the Gospels, which of the following is true of Jesus?
E) His parables were lengthy essays criticizing the emperor.
F) He rose from the dad and spoke to his disciples.
G) He believed there were several true gods.
H) He relied entirely on his disciples to spread his teachings.
10. Which major religion was born during a time when the Roman Empire was near
its height?
A) Judaism
B) Hinduism
C) Islam
D) Christianity
Unit in Review
PART I
1. Who governed the largest empire of the ancient world? _____________________
2. What religion developed in Ancient Rome? ______________________
3. The Romans preserved classical ___________________ &
_________________________ cultures.
4. Rank the order of the governments Rome had…republic, empire, kings. Which
government came first? ________________ Which government came second?
__________________ Which government came last? ___________________
5. What two groups dominated the Roman Republic? ___________________ &
________________________
Directions: For the following (6-10), choose whether it was the plebeians or
patricians.
6. Common citizens such as merchants, teachers, doctors.
_____________________
7. Wealthy landowners. ___________________________
8. controllers of the Senate ________________________
9. heads of the assembly ________________________
10. writers of Rome’s first laws ____________________________
11. What was the name of Rome’s first written laws?
__________________________
12. Rome fought three wars with Carthage. What were these wars called?
_______________________________
13. By defeating Carthage in the Punic Wars, Rome gained control of the entire
_______________________________ Sea.
14. What was the main reason the Roman Republic fell?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
15. Who formed Rome’s first informal governing partnership called the First
Triumvirate? _______________________, _________________________,
___________________
PART II
1. Who was the first member of the Roman republic to hold the title of Imperator
(King)? _____________________________
2. Worried about Caesar’s growth of power, a groups of senators led by
_______________ & ___________________conspired to kill him.
3. What was the day and the name of the day Caesar was stabbed to death?
________________________________________________________________
4. Following Caesar’s death a ________ Triumvirate was formed.
5. What was the name of the battle in which Octavian took control of the Second
Triumvirate? ________________________________
6. Who was Rome’s 1st dictator? __________________ What name did the Senate
give him? ______________________
7. What was the name of the period in Roman history that began with the rule of
Augustus and lasted almost 200 years?
___________________________________
8. What were five reasons Rome reached its height during this time?
A)_______________________________________________________________
B) _______________________________________________________________
C) _______________________________________________________________
D) _______________________________________________________________
E) _______________________________________________________________
9. What part of Rome did Christianity develop? __________________________
10. What person did Christians follow? _____________________
11. Christianity was derived from which religion? ______________________
12. The teachings & life of Jesus are written in the first four books of the New
Testament. These were called the ________________________
13. Jesus was recognized as the ___________________ by his followers.
14. The first twelve followers of Jesus were known as the ___________________.
15. Jesus was sentenced to death by Pontius Pilate. The way he was killed was called
the ____________________________________.
PART III
1. Why did Marcus Aurelius increase persecution against the Christians?
____________________________________________________________
2. Why did Diocletian persecute the Christians? ___________________________
________________________________________________________________
3. Who and what ended the persecution of the Christians? WHO
___________________
WHAT _________________________________
4. Who passed a law making Christianity the official religion of the empire?
_______________________________
5. Identify 5 reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire.
A) _____________________________________________________
B) _____________________________________________________
C) _____________________________________________________
D) _____________________________________________________
E) _____________________________________________________
6. What step did Diocletian make in order to re-establish the Roman Empire?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
7. What step did Constantine take in order to save the Roman Empire?
________________________________________________________________
8. After the fall of Rome, the Eastern Roman Empire became known as the
____________________________________________