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Study guide Cell division and Reproduction
1. What are three ways in which plants reproduce asexually? Bulbs, Cuttings and Runners
2. What is the proper sequence of events in the life cycle of plant?
(#2 growth, #1germination,
#4fertilization,
#3pollination)
3. What is pollination? The transfer of pollen from the anther ( male part of the flower that makes pollen) to
the stigma (female part of the flower)
4. What happens after a pollen grain lands on the stigma? A pollen tube forms growing from the stigma down
to the ovary. Next, the pollen grain (male sex cell) fuses with the ovule (female sex cell) in the ovary - this is
fertilization and produces seeds. After this, the flower withers and the ovary develops into a fruit to protect the
seeds.
5. What happens if rose pollen lands on a daisy stigma? Nothing, no pollen tube will form unless the matching
pollen lands on the appropriate stigma.
6. What are some ways pollination may occur? Bees, humming birds, wind, rain, gravity
7. What is fertilization? The joining of male and female sex cells to create a zygote. This single cell will be
able to possibly grow into a new organism.
Where does this happen in plants? The ovary
In
humans? The fallopian tube.
8. How do ovules differ from seeds? Ovules are the female sex cells with half the number of chromosomes.
These cells cannot grow into a plant. When the ovule is fertilized, a seed is formed.
9. What does a fruit come from and do for a plant? The ovary with seeds will become a fruit which can protect
the seeds.
10. How are sex cells - gametes - different from regular body -somatic-cells? They have ½ the number of
chromosomes as the body cells.
11. If you see flowers, what type of reproduction does that indicate? Sexual
12. A sex cell of an organism has 8 chromosomes, how many are in the body cells of that organism? Since sex
cells have ½ the number of chromosomes, the body cells will have 16 chromosomes.
13. Where would you find DNA /genetic material in a cell? The nucleus 14. When would you see
chromosomes? These are seen during cell division ( mitosis)
15. What are some of the function of chromosomes? These are made of DNA and Protein have contain the
information needed to build proteins that will form our traits. Because they are condensed during cell division,
it is easier to separate them to ensure that the correct DNA arrives in each of the new cells.
16. What types of organisms have a nucleus? Eukaryotic cells
No nucleus? Prokaryotic cells
17. How many chromosomes are found in a human body cell? 46
a human sex cell? 23
How many
chromosomes come from each parent? Since each give one sex cell… 23 each
18. Thinking about the cell cycle... Draw and fully label the cell cycle.
a. When is the DNA copied?
Interphase ( S)
b. When is the cytoplasm divided to give 2 daughter cells? Cytokinesis
c. What are the main parts of the cell cycle? Interphase, Mitosis and Cytokinesis
d. What are the phases of mitosis?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase
e. When has the nucleus been copied? It is copied during mitosis so is complete at the end of telophase
f. What are 2 differences in cell division between plant and animal cells? 1. Animal cells have organelles
called centrioles for making spindle fibers. Plant cells do not have centrioles though they are able to make
spindle fibers to move the chromosomes during cell division. 2. During cytokinesis, animal cells use a
cleavage furrow to divide the cytoplasm and organelles. Because plant cells have a rigid cell wall, they must
form a cell plate to divide the cytoplasm.
19. Identify each of these statements as describing mitosis, meiosis, both
_ME______Makes haploid cells with 1/2 the normal number of chromosomes
__both_____Makes new cells
_MI______mainly involved with replacement of body cells and growth
_MI______a cell produces 2 daughter cells
_ME______has 2 divisions
_MI_____Makes diploid cells with the 2N or normal number of chromosomes
__Both__is a type of cell division
_MI______has 1 division
_ME______makes sex cells
_MI______after this process, a cell with 20 chromosome will make 2 cells with 20 chromosome
_ME______after this process a cell with 20 chromosomes will make 4 cells with 10 chromosome
20. Identify each of these statements as describing sexual or asexual reproduction
__A____makes organisms that are genetically like the parent cell(s)
___A___keeps good traits
__S____makes organisms that are different from parent cell(s)
__S____gives variety to a species
21. Thinking about the Human Life Cycle...
a. Which of these sequences does a human follow before its birth? (#2fertilization, #1ovulation,
#3implantation)
b. What is ovulation: the movement of an egg into the fallopian tube
c. What is implantation: the movement of the growing cluster of cells into the wall of the uterus so that a
connection can be made between this developing embryo and the mother … the placenta and umbilical cord
will develop to link mother and child.
d. Where are eggs found in the female animal?
ovary
Where does the baby develop? Uterus
e. What connects the embryo to the placenta? Umbilical cord
f. How does the baby get food and oxygen? From the mother via the placenta and umbilical cord
g. What is the primary male hormone?
testosterone
female hormone? Estrogen and progesterone
h. Where are sperm produced? testes
i. This allows the uterus to be prepared for a possible pregnancy: the menstrual cycle
j. The shedding of the uterine lining. Occurs on a regular basis when fertilization does not occur:
Menstration ( the women’s period)
23. Make sure you can label the parts of a flower, the female and male reproductive systems