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Transcript
Infection Control Unit 2
Trotter
Standard Precautions
 All patients treated the same
 Everyone is infected with infectious
diseases
 Routine practice for all healthcare
professionals
 PPE
 Biohazard containers
Standard Precautions

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Handwashing
Before and after gloving
Between patients
After using the bathroom
After sneezing, coughing, using tissue
Before eating
After processing specimens, lab
procedures
Sharps
 Use extreme caution when handling
sharps – needles, lancets, glass,
sharp instruments
 Never recap, break or remove
needles
 Use puncture-proof containers
 Look in/on beds, tables, counters
Infectious Waste
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Proper container – biohazard symbol
Red bags
Minor – regular trash
Treat with extreme caution
Wear PPE
Two greatest threats – HBV & HIV
CDC recommendations
Latex Allergies



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


Swelling, rash, itching, dyspnea
Can be life threatening
Range of reactions
Latex free items available
Latex free carts
Latex free exam room
Always ask, always look
Disease Prevention
Changes began in the mid-1980’s
OSHA – before AIDS
CLIA – 1988
Federal regulations – law and safety
for patients and healthcare workers
 Called Standard Precautions
 Fines for noncompliance




Standard Precautions p- 538
Handwashing
Gloves
Eye protection
Mask
Gown
Patient care
equipment
 Environmental
Control
 Linen






 Occupational
Health and
Bloodborne
Pathogens
 Patient placement
Disease prevention considerations

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Disposable items
Skin conditions
Open wounds
Pregnancy
HBV prevention – immunization
PPE
Indirect and Direct Contract
 Droplet infection – 20 feet or more
 Cough, sneeze, whistle
 Indirect – touching something that
has the microorganism on it
 Direct – contact with patient or their
body fluids
 What are possibilities for direct
contact?
Disease Transmission

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
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

Communicable diseases
Acute
Chronic
Disease description
Means of transmission
Incubation period
S&S
TX
Prevention
Disease Transmission
Susceptible
Vulnerable
Resistance
Infection cycle p. 543
How to break the cycle!
Diseases to know



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AIDS
Varicella
URI – common cold
Conjunctivitis
Pediculosis
HIB
HAV
HBV
HCV





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HSV
Impetigo
Influenza
Meningitis
Pinworms
Pneumonia
Scabies
Strep throat
Scarlet fever
Immunity


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Immune system – cellular resistance
Health – homeostais
Nutrition
Rest
Emotional health
Exercise
Specialized defense mechanisms

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Respiratory cilia
Coughing
Sneezing
Secretions
pH
Requirements of microorganisms

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
O2
pH
Warm temp – 98.6 F
Nutrients
Water
host
5 types of microorganisms

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Bacteria
Virus
Fungi
Parasite
Protozoa
Bacteria

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
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Varied morphology
Single-celled
No nucleus
No organelles
Cell division q20min
Pathogenic/Nonpathogenic
Viruses
 Smallest microorganisms
 Electron microscope needed
 Only reproduce in a host
Herpes Virus
HCV
SARS
Protozoa
 Complex single-celled
microorganisms
 Attach to other organisms
 Dysentery
 Malaria
 Trichomonas vaginalis
 Parasitic
Fungi
Simple parasitic plants (molds)
Budding
Depend on another source for food
100 different kinds in humans – only
10 cause problems
 Athlete’s foot
 Ringworm

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Parasites
 Obligate – depends entirely on host
 Facultative – can live independently
for a while
 Internal and external
 Worms
 Scabies
Microorganisms

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Flora
Heterotrophic
Autotrophic
Organic
Inorganic
Aerobes
Anaerobes
Infection Control
 Sanitization
 Disinfection
 Sterilization
Sanitization

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Wash and scrub to remove materials
Handwashing
Gloves should be worn
Rinse in cool water
Soak in warm detergent – 20 minutes
Wash and scrub with brush
Rinse hot
Dry
Disinfection






Chemical or physical
Kill pathogens
Germicide
Bactericide
Objects not people
Where can we find these products?
Sterilization
 Destroy all living organisms and
spores
 Autoclave
 Shelf life – 30 days, dry
 Expiration date
 Check for integrity
Sterilizing instruments





Autoclave
Chemicals – 10 hours
Sharp instruments
Rubber
Vinyl
Sterilization
 Autoclaving
 Incineration
 Dry heat oven
Autoclave