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Transcript
```Quarter #4 Final Exam Guide
Name ________________________________
The following topics may appear on the exam:
 Significant figures
 Nomenclature (chemical names and formulas)
 Balanced chemical equations
 Reaction types
 Stoichiometry (extended mole train)
 Excess (XS) / Limiting Reactants (LR)
 % yield
 Combined gas law (P1V1T2 = P2V2T1)
 Ideal gas law (PV = nRT)
 Kinetic molecular theory
 Molarity and solution stoichiometry
 Net ionic equations
 Dilutions (M1V1 = M2V2)
 Dissociation of ionic compound in water
 Calorimetry (sensible and latent heat formulas)
 Hess law
 Factors that affect reaction rate
 Potential energy diagram
 Equilibrium conditions
 LeChatelier’s principle
 Ke (Ka) expressions
 pH calculations
 Titrations (MAVAnA = MBVBnB)
 Conjugate acid-base pairs
 Excess acid/base calculations
 Quantitative analysis lab
 Terms (vocabulary)
The following topics will not appear on the exam:
 History of the atom
 Calculations involving energy, frequency and wavelength
 Molecular shapes
 Naming and drawing H-carbons
 Metric conversions
 Physical / chemical changes
 Classification of matter
 Empirical / molecular formulas
 Atomic structure
 Periodic trends (IE, EN, reactivity)
 Electron configurations
 Lewis (electron dot) structures
 Colligative properties
 Enthalpy, Entropy, Gibb’s free energy
 Ksp calculations
You will receive a packet with the following to use while taking your exam:
Periodic table
Solubility table
Common ion table / Naming rules
Mole train guide
Appendix 3 (acid-base strength chart)
Formula guide (same as in this packet)
Exam preparation:
Complete this review guide
Study notes / exams / assignments
Quarter #4 Review Guide
TERMS: Define the following terms.
1. Solute
2. Solvent
3. Saturated solution
4. Unsaturated solution
5. Supersaturated solution
6. Precipitate
7. Catalyst
8. Exothermic
9. Endothermic
10. Surface area
11. catalyst
12. activation energy
13. activated complex
14. intermediate
15. reaction mechanism
16. rate determining step
17. reversible reaction
18. neutralization
19. titration
20. endpoint
21. indicator
22. buffer
Chemical Equations
Predict the products of the following reactions. Balance the resulting
chemical equation. Identify the type of each reaction.
Diatomic elements: H2, O2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
RXN TYPE
1. ____ Cu(I) + ____O2 
2. ____ Mg(OH)2 + ____ Li3PO4 
3. ____ Na + ____ Sn(SO4)2 
4. ____ Ag2O 
5. ____ Ca + ____ P5 
6. ____ BaCl2 
7. ____ Cs + ____ CaCl2 
8. The combustion of octane (C8H18)
9. The synthesis of potassium oxide from its component elements.
10. The reaction between lithium oxide and calcium chloride.
Chemical Names and Formulas
Name the following compounds.
1. NaBr
____________________
7. H3P
__________________
2. Ca(OH)2
____________________
8. Fe2(SO3)3 __________________
3. P2O5
______________________________
9. H3PO4
___________________________
4. CuSO4
______________________________
10. SO2
___________________________
5. FePO4
______________________________
11. Zn(NO3)2 ___________________________
6. K3N
____________________
12. NH4Cl
__________________
Write the correct chemical formula for each compound.
1.
silicon dioxide
_______________
2.
nickel (II) sulfide
_______________
3.
manganese (II) hydroxide ______________
4.
silver acetate
_______________
5.
diboron tetrabromide
_______________
6.
magnesium sulfate
_______________
7.
potassium carbonate
_______________
8.
ammonium oxide
_______________
9.
tin (IV) oxide
_______________
10.
carbon tetrachloride
_______________
11.
carbonic acid
_______________
12.
hydrosulfuric acid
_______________
Stoichiometry: Show work, proper units and significant figures.
1. 348 grams of ammonia (NH3) gas is produced in the Haber process
given below?
___ N2(g)
+
___ H2(g)

___ NH3(g)
+
24.0 kcal
A. Balance the equation.
B. What mass of nitrogen gas is consumed?
C. What volume of hydrogen gas is consumed?
 @ STP
 @ Pressure = 20.0 atm and Temperature = 350.K
D. How much energy is released?
2. 866 grams of solid potassium chlorate decomposes into solid
potassium chloride and oxygen gas when heated.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Write a balanced equation for the reaction.
How many moles of potassium chlorate decompose?
What mass of potassium chloride is produced?
What volume of oxygen gas is produced
 @ STP
 @ 1.50 atm and 250.K
XS / LR: Write the balanced equation for each problem. Then answer the
questions showing work and appropriate units.
1.
10.0 grams of sodium hydroxide reacts with 15.0 grams of calcium chloride?
What is the limiting reactant?
What is the % yield of NaCl if 12.0 grams of it are actually produced?
2.
176 grams of propane (C3H8) gas react with 384 grams of oxygen gas to
produce water vapor and carbon dioxide according to the following equation:
___ C3H8
+
___ O2

___ CO2
+
___ H2O
A.
B.
Balance the equation.
What is the limiting reactant?
C.
What reactant is in excess? How many moles of it are left over?
D.
What mass of carbon dioxide is produced?
Gases: Show work, proper units and significant figures.
1. The volume of gas in a plastic bottle is 0.50 liters at 750 mmHg and 20ºC. If the
volume of the gas is reduced to 0.15 liters at 20ºC, what is the final pressure of
gas in the bottle?
2. 4.5 liters of neon gas at 380 mmHg and 0ºC is subjected to a pressure increase of
760 mmHg and temperature increase of 60ºC. What will be the final volume of
the neon gas?
3. A large plant in a hospital room uses 0.437 moles of oxygen gas in the process of
respiration over a 24 hour period. What volume of oxygen gas does the plant use
from the room if the room is at 28ºC and 742 mmHg?
4. What is the molar mass of a gas in which 7.00 grams occupies 3.30 liters at 40.ºC
and 760. mmHg?
Solutions: Show work, proper units and significant figures.
1.
Lye (NaOH) is an effective drain cleaner. How would you prepare 750 milliliters
of 0.20 M NaOH solution from solid NaOH pellets?
2.
In car batteries, 6.0 M H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) is used. You purchase one gallon
(3.78 L) of 18.0 M H2SO4. How would you make 1.5 liters of 6.0 M H2SO4 from
the 18.0 M H2SO4?
3.
A sample of household ammonia contains 156 grams of NH3 dissolved in water to
form 3.0 liters of solution. What is the molarity of the household ammonia?
4.---If excess zinc reacts with 750 ml of 0.25 M hydrobromic acid (HBr), what volume of
hygrogen gas would form at STP? (Start by writing a balanced chemical equation.)
Net Ionic Equations
Directions: For each of the following reactant pairs, predict the products that could form
when the given reactants are combined. Then write the following in your lab notebook.
 Balanced molecular equation (include subscripts)
 Balanced total ionic equation (include subscripts and charges)
 Net ionic equation (include subscripts and charges)
 Write NR if “no reaction” will take place. (The formation of H2O liquid in an
acid/base neutralization is considered a reaction.)
Use your solubility table to determine precipitate formation. Assume hydrogen
compounds are aqueous unless stated otherwise.
Use the activity series to determine if single displacement reactions occur.
1. Strontium sulfide + aluminum chloride 
2. Ammonium sulfite + barium hydroxide 
3. Nitric acid + barium hydroxide 
Energy
1.
40.0 grams of steam at 150. degrees Celcius is cooled, condensed to liquid water,
and cooled to 20.0 degrees Celcius. How much energy is given off in this entire
process? (Use a diagram “temperature versus time” to visualize what happens as
energy is removed from the system – identify the potential and kinetic energy
changes on this diagram.)
2.
Find ΔH for the combustion of liquid benzene (C6H6). Make sure to write the
balanced equation.
Use the following tools in either the forward or reverse direction:
6 C(s) + 3 H2(g) + 11.6 kcal  C6H6(liq)
C(s) + O2(g)  CO2(g) + 94.0 kcal
H2(g) + ½ O2(g)  H2O(g) + 57.8 kcal
3.
How much energy is released/absorbed (circle one) when 2.50 x 103 grams of
carbon dioxide is produced in this reaction?
Potential Energy Diagram
Draw a potential energy diagram representing an endothermic reaction. Label
your axes. Label reactants, products, activated complex, activation energy and
net energy absorbed.
Equilibrium
For questions 1-3; tell whether equilibrium shifts right, left or not at all.
1.
CO(g)
+
NO2(g)
↔
CO2(g)
+
NO(g)
+
54.1 kcal
What happens to this system at equilibrium if:
A. the temperature is decreased?
B. the volume is increased by a factor of 10?
2.
heat
+
H2O(liq)
↔
H2O(g)
How will the following affect this system in equilibrium?
A. reducing volume by increasing pressure
B. increasing temperature
C. injecting steam in the system (assume no temp change)
3.
CO(g)
+
2H2(g)
↔
CH3OH(g)
+
heat
A. the temperature is decreased with pressure and amount held constant
B. the pressure is decreased with temperature and amount held constant
4. Consider the reaction:
4 HCl(g) + O2(g)
↔
2 H20(g)
+
2 Cl2(g)
+
27 kcal
What effect would each of the following changes have on the equilibrium
concentration of Cl2(g)? (Answer decrease, increase or no effect)?
A. Decreasing the temperature of the reaction vessel.
B. Increasing the total pressure.
C. Increasing the concentration of O2(g).
D. Increasing the volume of the reaction chamber.
5. Write the equilibrium law expression for the following reactions:
A. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ↔ 2 NH3(g)
B. CO(g)
C. Zn(s)
+
NO2(g)
2 Ag+(aq)
+
↔
CO2(g) +
↔
Zn+2(aq)
2 I-(aq)
D. PbI2(s)
↔
Pb+2(aq)
+
E. CN-(aq)
+
H2O (liq)
↔
Acids /Bases --- see unit #12 info
Quantitative Analysis --- see lab info
HCN(aq)
NO(g)
+
2 Ag(s)
+
OH-(aq)
Final Exam Formulas
Gases
 One mole of any gas at STP (standard temperature and pressure) has a volume of 22.4
liters
 Standard Pressure = 760 mmHg (millimeters mercury) = 1.00 atm (atmospheres) =
101.325 kPa (kilopascals) = 14.7 psi (pounds per square inch)
 Standard Temperature = 0ºC (Celcius) = 273K (Kelvin)
 (“degrees” Kelvin) = (degrees Celcius) + 273
 Dalton’s law of partial pressures: P1 + P2 + P3 + … = PTotal
 Combined gas law: P1V1T2 = P2V2T1
 Ideal gas law: PV=nRT
 R = ideal gas constant = 0.0821 L atm / mol K = 62.4 L mmHg / mol K
Definitions and Formulas --- Energy
A)
One calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram
of water by one degree Celcius.
B)
1.000 calories (cal) = 4.184 joules (J)
C)
1000 calories (cal) = 1.000 kilocalories (kcal) = 1 Calorie (“food” Calorie)
D)
1000 joules (J) = 1.000 kilojoules (kJ)
E)
Plateau (latent heat) formula:
Energy = nΔHf (solid  liquid or liquid  solid)
Energy = nΔHv (liquid  gas
or gas  liquid)
n = number of moles
Molar heat of fusion for H2O (ΔHf = 1.44 kcal /mol)
Molar heat of vaporization for H2O (ΔHv = 9.70 kcal/mol)
F)
Slope (sensible heat) formula:
Energy = CmΔT
C = heat capacity
heat capacity for H2O liquid = 1.00 cal / gºC
heat capacity for H2O solid = 0.50 cal / gºC
heat capacity for H2O gas = 0.45 cal / gºC
m = mass
ΔT = change in temperature
Solutions
 Molarity (M) = moles of solute / liters of solution
 Dilution formula: M1 x V1 = M2 x V2
Acids and Bases
 Kw = [H+] x [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14 (Kw is the equilibrium constant for water)
 pH = - log [H+]
 [H+] = inverse log (-pH)
 pKA = -log KA
 Henderson-Hasselbach Equation: pH = pKA + log ( [base] / [acid] )
Titration: MA x VA x nA = MB x VB x nB

Solubility Rules (condensed)
 All nitrates form soluble compounds.
 All alkali metals form soluble compounds
Honors Chem – Final Exam Guide (Answers to Selected Problems)
Stoichiometry
1B
287 g
2B
7.04 mol
1C
2C
688 L 44.1 L
525 g
1D
2D
246 kcal
237 L 145 L
XS/LR
1 82.2%
2C
1.60 mol
2D
317 g
Gases
1) 2500 mmHg 2) 1.8 L
Solutions
1) 6.0 g etc
Energy
1) 25.7 kcal
2) 0.50 L etc
3) 11.1 L
4) 54.7 g/mol
3) 3.1 M
2) ΔH = -749 kcal
4) 2.1 L
3) 7090 kcal released
```
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