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Transcript
Summaries of
..
.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
..
.
an English Grammar for students in higher education
C O N TR A S TIV E
G R A MM A R 1B
SUMMARIES OF: ‘AN EN GLISH GRAMMAR FOR
STUDENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION’
(BY P.L. KONING AND DR. P.J. VAN DER VOORT)
Summaries of
..
.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
..
.
an English Grammar for students in higher education
Summaries of
..
.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
..
.
an English Grammar for students in higher education
Contents
16 The noun........................................................................................................................... 5
16.1 Classes of nouns .............................................................................................................. 5
16.2 How to make the plural.................................................................................................... 5
16.3 Plural of nouns ending in –y ............................................................................................ 5
16.4 Plural of nouns ending in –o ............................................................................................ 5
16.5 Plural formed by –‘s ......................................................................................................... 5
16.6 The plural of nouns ending in –f or –fe............................................................................ 6
16.7 Irregular Plurals................................................................................................................ 6
16.8 Nouns having one form for singular and plural. ............................................................... 6
16.9 Nouns that are plural in BrE but singular in Dutch. ......................................................... 7
16.10 Nouns that are singular in Dutch but plural in BrE. ....................................................... 7
16.11 Collective nouns............................................................................................................. 7
16.12 Plural noun when more than one ................................................................................... 7
16.13 Masculine / feminine / neuter........................................................................................ 8
16.14 Different words for male and female beings ................................................................... 8
16.15 One noun for man and woman ...................................................................................... 8
17 The genitive ......................................................................................................................9
17.1 The form of the genitive .................................................................................................. 9
17.2 The use of the genitive ..................................................................................................... 9
17.3 Propernouns .................................................................................................................... 9
17.4 Nouns denoting persons or animals ................................................................................. 9
17.5 Nouns denoting things ..................................................................................................... 9
17.6 Nouns denoting time ....................................................................................................... 9
17.7 The genitive in a number of fixed expressions: ................................................................. 9
17.8 The classifying genitive .................................................................................................. 10
17.9 The independent genitive ............................................................................................... 10
17.10 The local genitive ......................................................................................................... 10
17.11 The post-genitive ......................................................................................................... 10
18 The definite article .......................................................................................................... 11
18.1 The use of the definite article before nouns used in a general sense................................ 11
18.2 Use of the definite article before school, etc. .................................................................. 11
18.3 The definite article before names of regular meals .......................................................... 11
18.4 The definite article before names of means of transport ................................................. 11
18.5 The definite article before geographical names ............................................................... 11
18.6 Definite article before names of language ....................................................................... 11
18.7 Definite Article before most and half ............................................................................. 12
18.8 Definite article before last or next .................................................................................. 12
Summaries of
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.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
..
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an English Grammar for students in higher education
18.9 Definite article before a superlative ................................................................................ 12
18.10 No definite article in a number of expressions.............................................................. 12
18.11 Definite article in English but not in Dutch ................................................................. 12
19 The indefinite article ...................................................................................................... 13
19.1 A/an .............................................................................................................................. 13
19.2 Indefinite article before a number of nouns ................................................................... 13
19.3 Indefinite article after as ................................................................................................. 13
19.4 The indefinite article after with and without ................................................................... 13
19.5 The indefinite article before hundred and thousand. ...................................................... 13
19.6 The indefinite article for Dutch ‘een zekere’ ................................................................... 13
19.7 The indefinite article in a number of expressions ........................................................... 13
19.8 Indefinte article before part of ....................................................................................... 14
20 The numeral ................................................................................................................... 15
20.1 Categories of numerals ................................................................................................... 15
20.2 Cardinals ........................................................................................................................ 15
20.3 Ordinals ......................................................................................................................... 15
20.4 Dates ............................................................................................................................. 15
21 The adjective................................................................................................................... 16
21.1 Adjectives without a following noun .............................................................................. 16
21.2 Degrees of comparison .................................................................................................. 16
21.3 -er/est or more/most? ................................................................................................... 16
21.4 Spelling changes before –er/est...................................................................................... 16
21.5 Irregular degrees of comparison ..................................................................................... 17
21.6 Adjectives used as nouns ................................................................................................ 17
21.7 Adjectives denoting nationalities .................................................................................... 18
21.8 one/ones after adjectives ............................................................................................... 18
21.9 Nouns used as adjectives ................................................................................................ 19
21.10 hoe langer hoe… / hoe… hoe… / des te … ............................................................... 19
22 The adverb ...................................................................................................................... 20
22.1 The form of the adverb .................................................................................................. 20
22.2 Spelling-changes before –ly ............................................................................................ 20
22.3 Adjectives that have no adverb....................................................................................... 20
22.4 impossibly / not possibly ............................................................................................... 20
22.5 Degrees of comparison of adverbs ................................................................................. 21
Summaries of
..
.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
..
.
an English Grammar for students in higher education
16 The noun
16.1 Classes of nouns
A.
B.
C.
D.
proper nouns
count nouns
non-count nouns
both count- and non-count nouns
a. to refer to different kinds
b. to intensify the meaning
16.2 How to make the plural
regularly  adding –s
end in hissing sound  adding –es
end in hissing sound + -e  adding –s
16.3 Plural of nouns ending in –y
end in consonant + -y  ‘-y’ changes into ‘ie’ + adding –s
end in vowel + -y  adding –s
16.4 Plural of nouns ending in –o
end in consonant + -o  adding –es (regularly)
end in vowel + -o  adding –s (regularly)
Some nouns ending in consonant + -o  adding –s
pianos, kilos, discos, photos, memos, dynamos, hippos and Eskimos
Some nouns may add –s or –es when plural
banjos/banjoes
cargos/cargoes
volcanos/volcanoes
mosquitos / mosquitoes
buffalos/buffaloes,
flamingos/flamingos
16.5 Plural formed by –‘s
plural of letters  adding -‘s
plural of abbreviations  adding –‘s (but more common: adding –s)
plural of numerals  adding –‘s (but more common: adding –s)
tornados/tornadoes
torpedos/torpedoes
ghettos/ghettoes
Summaries of
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.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
..
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an English Grammar for students in higher education
16.6 The plural of nouns ending in –f or –fe
A. Plural in –ves
calves
halves
sheaves
knives
elves
lives
B. Plural is –fs or –ves
handkerchiefs/handkerchieves
scarfs/scarves
selves
wives
shelves
leaves
thieves
loaves
hoofs/hooves
wharfs/wharves
volves
dwarfs / dwarves
C. Nouns ending on –f  only adding -s
16.7 Irregular Plurals
A. vowel change
man – men
woman – women
goose – geese
B. plural in –en
child – children
foot – feet
tooth – teeth
louse – lice
mouse – mice
ox – oxen
C. “pennies” to denote coins / “pence” to denote price
D. Irregular foreign words
basis – bases
crisis – crises
oasis – oases
analysis – analyses
thesis – theses
hypothesis – hypotheses
stimulus – stimuli
cactus – cacti / cactuses
phenomenon – phenomena (less common: phenomenons)
terminus – termini / terminuses
aquarium – aquariums / aquaria
medium – media
curriculum – curricula / curriculums
stadium – stadiums / stadia
criterion – criteria
datum – data
16.8 Nouns having one form for singular and plural.
A. The names of some animals:
deer, sheep, grouse and plaice
B. A number of nouns ending in –s:
alms, barracks, means, series, works and headquarters
Summaries of
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.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
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an English Grammar for students in higher education
C. A number of nouns denoting inhabitants of a country or town:
Japanese, Swiss, Vietnamese, Viennese and Portuguese
D. The word ‘craft’ and its compounds.
16.9 Nouns that are plural in BrE but singular in Dutch.
A. Nouns denoting an object consisting of two equal parts.
a. When the indefinite article or a numeral precedes, the word ‘pair’ is used. (a pair of
jeans)
b. In compound nouns, a singular form is used. (a spectacle case)
B. Other nouns that are always plural:
surroundings
premises
pains
proceeds
ashes
contents
arrears
riches
savings
customs
damages
stairs
thanks
wages
fireworks
holidays
spirits
billiarts, darts,
dominoes and draughts  always plural but followed by singular verb.
Nouns ending on –ics  always singular verb. (sometimes also plural)
The United States and the United Nations  singular verb
16.10 Nouns that are singular in Dutch but plural in BrE.
progress, business, furniture, property, strength and information
o business and property can also be countnouns.
o furniture and information can be made countable by using a numeral. (a few / bit)
16.11 Collective nouns
singular verb + collective noun  group is thought of as a unit
plural verb + collective noun  individual members of a group are thought of
Collective nouns that are always followed by a plural verb: people, cattle, police, clergy and vermin
o people can be count noun in the meaning of: nation
o cattle can be made countable by the word: head
16.12 Plural noun when more than one
Plural  more than one
Singular  numeral + hyphen
Summaries of
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.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
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an English Grammar for students in higher education
16.13 Masculine / feminine / neuter
masculine  male persons or animals
feminine  female persons of animals
neuter  all other nouns
A. Animals are neuter when the sex in unknown
B. Geographical units of counties are neuter
political-, economical- and cultural- units are feminine
C. Ships / cars / planes / motorbike are feminine to express an affectionate attitude.
16.14 Different words for male and female beings
man – woman
boy – girl
nephew – niece
fiancé – fiancée
actor – actress
heir – heiress
host – hostess
waiter – waitress
duke – duchess
widower – widow
hero – heroine
policeman – policewoman
chairman – chairwoman
cock – hen
bull – cow
stallion – mare
emperor – empress
spokesman –
spokeswoman
! Words ending in –person can be used in situations where it is felt to be desirable not to refer to
the sex of the person.
16.15 One noun for man and woman
A) The question whether a man or woman is meant can be expressed by putting a feminine or
masculine noun before the noun.
B) The question whether a man or woman is meant can be expressed by putting a male or female
noun before the noun.
Summaries of
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.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
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an English Grammar for students in higher education
17 The genitive
17.1 The form of the genitive
A. ‘s
B. ‘ (genitive of propernouns ending in –s, -‘s or –‘ )
17.2 The use of the genitive
Refers to: possession, relation, part of or time
17.3 Propernouns
Propernouns of persons  Genitive
Propernouns of towns or countries  both genitive and of phrase
17.4 Nouns denoting persons or animals
Nouns denoting a person  both genitive and of phrase
Nouns denoting an animal  both genitive and of phrase
17.5 Nouns denoting things
Nouns denoting lifeless things  of phrase
Nouns denoting places  both genitive and of phrase
Collective nouns  both genitive and of phrase
Nouns denoting means of transport  both genitive and of phrase
17.6 Nouns denoting time
Nouns denoting time  genitive
17.7 The genitive in a number of fixed expressions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Keep a person at arm’s length.
For goodness’ sake.
Enjoy oneself to one’s heart content.
to be at one’s wits’ (or: wit’s) end.
At a stone’s throw.
Summaries of
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.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
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an English Grammar for students in higher education
17.8 The classifying genitive
The classifying genitive denotes: ‘a kind of…’
17.9 The independent genitive
The independent genitive is used when a noun is left out because it has been mentioned before (or
will be mentioned later)
17.10 The local genitive
The local genitive (often in combination with a deletion site) is used to denote a particular building.
17.11 The post-genitive
When the head noun is preceded by:
A) the indefinite article
B) a numeral
C) a quantifier
D) a demonstrative pronoun
E) an interrogative pronoun
F) an indefinite pronoun
+ when the head noun is plural and not qualified by a plural word.
Summaries of
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.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
..
.
an English Grammar for students in higher education
18 The definite article
18.1 The use of the definite article before nouns used in a general sense.
English does NOT use the definite article when the following noun is: (1) a plural
(2) a non-count noun
(3) used in a general sense
(If ‘seasons’ are used in a general sense;
the definite article may be used.)
18.2 Use of the definite article before school, etc.
The special cases are: school, university, church, hospital, prison, college and town.
o No definite article when the use is referred to.
o Definite article when the building or town as such is referred to.
18.3 The definite article before names of regular meals
In general  not used
Reference to quality or special occasion  used
18.4 The definite article before names of means of transport
When the use is referred to  no definite article
18.5 The definite article before geographical names
Ben Nevis
Vesuvius
Mount Everest
Mont Blanc
Lake Erie
Lake Genevia
Westminster
Abbey
Buckingham
Palace
St. Paul’s cathedral
the river Thames
! Antarctica  the Antarctic
West-Indië  the West Indies
Nederland  the Netherlands
18.6 Definite article before names of language
Definite article before names of language  none
the river Rhine
the Matterhorn
the Jungfrau
Summaries of
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.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
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an English Grammar for students in higher education
18.7 Definite Article before most and half
most = the greater part of  no definite article
most = more than anyone else  definite article
Definite article is NEVER used before half.
18.8 Definite article before last or next
last = immediately before the present one  no definite article
last = not  (immediately before the present one)  definite article
next = refers to time from now  no definite article
next = refers to order  definite article
Last or next preceded by the followed by few:
1. The last few days, weeks, months, years, etc.
2. The next few days, weeks, months, years, etc.
18.9 Definite article before a superlative
No definite article if the superlative is a Subject attribute or an adverbial.
18.10 No definite article in a number of expressions
to lose patience
to weigh / drop anchor
to lose sight of
to catch sight of
to declare war on
at daybreak
at dawn
to shake hands with a person
to be dressed in black
to be at work
18.11 Definite article in English but not in Dutch
A) before names of musical instruments  definite article
B) before a noun + of  definite article
C) in some expressions:
to raise the alarm
to be / become the fashion
to put to the vote
to join the army
to be in practice
to learn by heart
to be at stake
Summaries of
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.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
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an English Grammar for students in higher education
19 The indefinite article
19.1 A/an
a is used before consonants
an is used before vowels
! a honour, honest, hour, heir (h is not pronounced)
a(n) hotel, historian (h is pronounced weakly in unstressed syllable)
19.2 Indefinite article before a number of nouns
The indefinite article is used before nouns denoting a profession, a religion, an occupation, a nationality or
another state in life.
Occupation, etc. can only be held by one person at the time  no indefinite article
Two qualities of the same person are contrasted  no indefinite article
After the post of, the office of and the rank of  no indefinite article
19.3 Indefinite article after as
Normally after as  indefinite article is used.
But: Occupation, etc. can only be held by one person at the time  no indefinite article
19.4 The indefinite article after with and without
The indefinite article is used after with and without, unless it’s followed by more than one noun that
belong together.
19.5 The indefinite article before hundred and thousand.
The indefinite article is used before hundred and thousand.
19.6 The indefinite article for Dutch ‘een zekere’
Before Mr, Mrs, Ms and miss  indefinite article
No title precedes  the indefinite article may not be used on its own
19.7 The indefinite article in a number of expressions
Summaries of
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.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
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an English Grammar for students in higher education
to have a fever
to have a headache
what a pity!
to have a cold
two at a time
to have a talent for
to keep something a secret
to have an appetite
on a large scale
a short time after that
for weeks at a stretch
to come to a standstill
to go on a journey
to take an interest in
there’s a chance that
in a loud voice
to give an answer to
to a great extent
to a certain extent
to sell at a loss
with a view to a merger
to express a wish to
as a rule
have a tendency to
for a change
earn a living
What do you do for a living?
19.8 Indefinte article before part of
Before part of  no indefinite article
After what before non-count- and plural nouns  no indefinite article
to sell at a profit
to have a right to
55p a kilo
£2 a piece / each
on a average
on the average
on average
twice a week
Summaries of
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.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
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an English Grammar for students in higher education
20 The numeral
20.1 Categories of numerals
Cardinals and Ordinals
20.2 Cardinals
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
F)
G)
H)
hundred, thousand, billion, million, etc. are preceded by a or one
the combination of a numeral with hundred, thousand, etc. is written as two separate words.
after hundred, thousand, billion, million, etc. the word and is used to separate of the tens and units.
from 2,000 onwards  first thousands, then hundreds
between 1,100 – 1,900  only hundreds
the comma is used to separate of the thousands
the full stop is used before decibels
the full stop is also used to separate of units of money or time
pronunciation of 0
telephone numbers and years  oh
temperatures and in science  zero
results in most games  nil
results in tennis  love
the plural tens in only used in tens of thousands
Dutch tientallen is translated with dozens
20.3 Ordinals
A) formed by adding –th to the cardinal (exceptions: first, second, third)
special cases: fifth, eighth, ninth, twelfth, twentieth
B) Spelling of figures: last two letters of the word written in letters are added to the cardinal in
numbers
C) In fractions, an ordinal preceded by a cardinal higher than one, is put in the plural.
1) The noun preceded by the fraction indicates whether a verb is singular or plural.
2) With collective nouns, both plural and singular verbs are allowed.
20.4 Dates
23 January / January 23 / 23rd January / January 23rd
DON’T USE of AND the IN WRITING!!!
Summaries of
..
.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
..
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an English Grammar for students in higher education
21 The adjective
An adjective says something about: (1) a noun
(2) a personal pronoun
(3) a demonstrative pronoun
21.1 Adjectives without a following noun
A.
B.
C.
D.
well and unwell (= in good / bad health)
ill
content (contented can always be used)
afraid, alive, alone, asleep, awake and aware.
21.2 Degrees of comparison
A. Comparing two persons or things
formal: comparative
informal: superlative
but: the greater part of / the latter half of
B. a superlative without the means very
21.3 -er/est or more/most?
-er/est
either –er/est
or more/most
more/most
1 syllable in
pronunciation
2 sylables and ending
in le-er-ow-y-some
3 syllables or more
2 syllables and stress
on second syllable
two syllables and stress
on first syllable
6 adjectives: civil,
stupid, common, cruel
quiet and pleasant.
21.4 Spelling changes before –er/est
A. When y is preceded by a consonant, it becomes i.
Exceptions: shy-shyer-shyest (also: shier, shiest) and sly-slyer-slyest
B. Final consonant is doubled when it is preceded by one stressed vowel letter.
C. When an adjective ends in –e, only –r and –st are added.
Summaries of
..
.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
..
.
an English Grammar for students in higher education
21.5 Irregular degrees of comparison
A. good/well
good – better – best
well – better – best (=not ill)
well-known – better-known – best-known
B. bad – worse – worst
C. ill – worse – worst
D. little – less – the least
few  used before plural nouns
less  no less than and less and less
E. much – more – most  used with non-count nouns
many – more – most  used with count nouns
F. reference to distance  farther – farthest / further – futhest
meaning is additional  further – furthest
G. old – older – oldest / old – elder – eldest
elder is used before: (1) son
(2) doughter
(3) brother
(4) sister
(5) child
H. later  refers to time
latter  refers to the second of people or things just mentioned
last  means final
latest  means most recent
21.6 Adjectives used as nouns
Adjectives used as nouns  to denote the whole class of people having the same quality
Adjectives followed by a noun such as man, woman, people, person, ect.  to denote individuals
But: unemployed can be used without a following noun if preceded by a numeral.
Adjectives followed by the noun thing  to refer to things
Exceptions: the worst is over
if the worst comes to the worst
the worst of it is that he told her
Summaries of
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.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
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an English Grammar for students in higher education
21.7 Adjectives denoting nationalities
A. To denote the whole nation British, Flemish, Welsh, Irish, French, Dutch and Spanish can be
used. (Also to denote a special group of people representing the country)
To denote individuals  add man/woman
To denote an individual inhabitant of Britan  Briton
B. Swiss and adjectives in –ese  to denote the whole nation or individuals
C. Other nations the plural of the noun denoting an inhabitant is used to denote the whole
country:
Country
Adjective
Inhabitant
the whole nation
Austria
Belgium
Denmark
Europe
Finland
Germany
Greece
Italy
Morocco
Norway
Poland
Austrian
Belgian
Danish
European
Finnish
German
Greek
Italian
Moroccan
Norwegian
Polish
an Austrian
a Belgian
a Dane
an European
a Finn
a German
a Greek
an Italian
a Moroccan
a Norwegian
a Pole
Scotland
Russia
Spain
Scottish
Scots
Russian
Spanish
a Scot
a Scotsman
a Russian
a Spaniard
Sweden
Swedish
a Swede
Turkey
Turkish
a Turk
the Austrians
the Belgians
the Danes
the Europeans
the Finns
the Germans
the Greeks
the Italians
the Moroccans
the Norwegians
the Poles
the Polish
the Scots
the Scottish
the Russians
the Spaniards
the Spanish
the Swedes
the Swedish
the Turks
21.8 one/ones after adjectives
No word after the adjective in Dutch  one added after the adjective in English.
But: one/ones can be left out after a comparative or superlative or after own.
Summaries of
..
.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
..
.
an English Grammar for students in higher education
21.9 Nouns used as adjectives
A. Nouns denoting materials may be used as an adjective.
golden = used in a figurative sense
gold = used in a literal sense
leaden = used in both figurative and literal sense
lead = equally correct in literal sense
silken = used in figurative sense
silk = used in a literal sense
B. Placenames can be used as adjectives.
Note: Paris has the adjective: Parisian.
21.10 hoe langer hoe… / hoe… hoe… / des te …
hoe langer hoe…  2 comparative forms linked by means of and
hoe… hoe…  two comparative forms preceded by the
des te beter  so much the better / all the better
des te erger  (all) the more serious
Summaries of
..
.. Francy Stroop
.. 2018642
..
.
an English Grammar for students in higher education
22 The adverb
The adverb refers to: (1) a verb
(2) an adjective
(3) another adverb
(4) the whole sentence
22.1 The form of the adverb
Adverbs are derived from adjectives by means of the suffix –ly.
Adjectives in –ic add –ally, but: publicly.
Adjectives and adverbs that have the same form:
hard
late
free
fast
direct
straight
early
fair
daily
weekly
monthly
quarterly
Adverbs that are not derived from any word: always, never, perhaps, only, here, etc.
22.2 Spelling-changes before –ly
A. final –y changes into i
but: shy – shyly
B. -ble becomes –bly
C. true becomes truly
D. whole becomes wholly
22.3 Adjectives that have no adverb
From the adjectives difficult and a numer of adjectives ending in –ly, no adverbs can be derived by
means of the suffix –ly. In this case, in a … way may be used as adverb.
Let op! not likely has the adverb probably not.
22.4 impossibly / not possibly
not possibly  adverb refers to an adjective or adverb
impossibly  adverb refers to a verb
Summaries of
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.. Francy Stroop
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an English Grammar for students in higher education
22.5 Degrees of comparison of adverbs
Degrees of comparison of adverbs are mostly formed by more/most.
 Adverbs of one syllable and early take –er/est.
 often has two forms: often – more often – most often / often – oftener – oftenest
There are also irregular forms:
badly – worse – worst
well – better – best
late – later – last
little – less – least
much – more – most