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Earth science MIDTERM review sheet 2015
hypothesis – an educated guess
neutrons have no charge, electrons are negative, protons are positive
independent variable – the variable that changes in an experiment
we never create or destroy matter, only change it
review cleavage (breaks with a smooth, flat side), fracture (jagged break),
hardness (can scratch other minerals)
6. foliated rocks- have layers
7. extrusive/intrusive igneous rocks
8. sedimentary rocks form from compaction and cementation, as well as from
9. slow cooling magma forms large crystals, fast cooling magma forms tiny crystals
10. the three fossil fuels – oil, coal, natural gas
11. What is an ore and reserve? a mineral is an ore as long as it is obtainable at a
profit (reserves are similar)
12. fission splits atoms, fusion joins atoms
13. review 4 inexhaustible energy resources – wind, water, sun, geothermal
14. A, B, C horizons – A is topsoil
15. 5 factors that affect soil development – time, type of parent rock, slope of land,
type of vegetation, climate
16. mechanical weathering changes shape and size of rock
17. chemical weathering changes the composition of a rock
18. vegetation reduces erosion
19. how does ice wedging happen – water freezes in cracks, expands and cracks rock
20. leaching carries minerals to the lower horizons
21. leaning trees or fences are signs of creep
22. plucking adds rocks to a glacier
23. it may take 1,000 years for new topsoil to form
24. what is no till farming – leave last year’s plants in the ground instead of plowing
them under
25. review geothermal (heat from the earth), hydroelectric (energy from water),
nuclear fission (splitting an atom for energy)
26. the sun uses fusion – joining two atoms
27. review soil profiles A, B and C (A is the best soil with most humus)
28. review ways to slow erosion – plant vegetation, retaining walls, farming
29. ice wedging – water freezes in cracks and splits the rock
30. leaching – water carries minerals down through the soil
31. signs of creep – leaning trees or fences
32. plucking – glaciers pick up rocks as they move