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Digestion Notes
Chemical digestion: chemical reaction
Mechanical Digestion: Physically breakdown
Mouth
Digestion starts in the mouth
Food is mechanically digested when it is ground up by the teeth.
Saliva softens and moistens the food.
Enzymes are proteins that speed up a chemical reaction. In the mouth enzymes start to
chemically breakdown food.
The tongue moves food around to mix it with saliva.
The mouth warms or cools food so the high or low temperature of the food does not harm
the windpipe.
Esophagus
A tube that connects the mouth to the stomach made of muscles that push the food toward
the stomach. This is known as peristalsis which is a wave of muscular contractions that
moves food through the digestive system.
At the bottom of the esophagus there is a ring of muscle that relaxes to let food into the
stomach and contracts to close.
Stomach
Is a bag of muscles shaped like a j.
The stomach produces acids and enzymes, which aid in chemical digestion.
Food entering the stomach is changed to fat, protein, starch and sugar.
The stomach churns or mixes the food, which is a form of mechanical digestion.
At the bottom of the stomach there is a ring of muscle that relaxes to let food into the
small intestine and contracts to close.
Small Intestine
Most digestion occurs here.
The first part neutralizes the acid so the food can continue in the digestive tract.
Digestive juices finish breaking down fats, starches, sugars and protein; which is a type
of chemical digestion.
Villi are finger-like structures that line the small intestine through which food, when it is
small enough, is absorbed into the bloodstream; the nutrients go to the
cells/mitochondria/cellular respiration/energy/characteristics of life.
Large Intestine
Parts of food that can’t be digested go to the large intestine.
Water, vitamins and minerals are removed from the undigested food.
The water, vitamins and minerals are absorbed (pass through) the intestinal walls and are
used by the body.
Waste becomes more solid until it reaches the rectum, and exits the anus.
Digestion Notes a
Chemical digestion: chemical reaction
Mechanical Digestion: Physically breakdown
Mouth
Digestion starts in the mouth
Food is mechanically digested when it is ground up by the teeth.
Saliva softens and moistens the food.
Enzymes speed up a chemical reaction. In the mouth enzymes start to chemically
breakdown food.
The tongue moves food around to mix it with saliva.
The mouth warms or cools food so the high or low temperature of the food does not harm
the windpipe.
Esophagus
A tube that connects the mouth to the stomach made of muscles that push the food toward
the stomach. This is known as peristalsis which is when a muscle pushes food through
digestive system.
At the bottom of the esophagus there is a ring of muscle that relaxes to let food into the
stomach and contracts to close.
Stomach
Is a bag of muscles shaped like a j.
The stomach produces acids and enzymes, which help in chemical digestion.
The stomach churns or mixes the food, which is a form of mechanical digestion.
At the bottom of the stomach there is a ring of muscle that relaxes to let food into the
small intestine and contracts to close.
Small Intestine
Most digestion occurs here.
Digestive juices finish breaking down fats, starches, sugars and protein; which is a type
of chemical digestion.
Villi are finger-like structures that line the small intestine through which food, when it is
small enough, is absorbed into the bloodstream. The nutrients go to the
cells/mitochondria/cellular respiration/energy/characteristics of life.
Large Intestine
Parts of food that can’t be digested go to the large intestine.
Water, vitamins and minerals are removed from the undigested food.
The water, vitamins and minerals are absorbed (pass through) the intestinal walls and are
used by the body.
Waste becomes more solid until it reaches the rectum, and exits the anus.