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Community Ecology
Communities and Biomes
Limiting Factors – ultimately limit this growth
Food, water, space, shelter
Density-dependent factors
Density-independent factors
Range of Tolerance
Tolerance Curves
Sequential growth/regrowth of species in an area
Primary Succession – bare rock, sand dunes, volcanic island
Secondary Succession – regrowth – after fires, etc.
Pioneer Species – good at inhabiting barren areas
(Pioneer Community)
The Process:
The growth of one species creates a habitat or microclimate that is better suited to the next successional species.
Climax Community – the final dominant community in the area (e.g., the biomes)
Dynamic – ever changing
Tree/canopy gaps
– setbacks in succession
Terrestrial Biomes
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Temperate Rainforest
Temperate Grassland
Tropical Rainforest
Aquatic Biomes/Ecosystems
Marine Biomes (salt water – oceans, etc.)
Photic zone
Aphotic zone
Intertidal zone
Nertic zone
Oceanic zone
Pelagic zone
Benthic zone
Estuaries (mixing of freshwater and salt water)
Freshwater Biomes
Lakes and Ponds
Rivers and Streams
Wetland Ecosystems
Freshwater Marshes
Inland Fresh Meadows
Calcareous Fen
Shrub Swamps
Wooded Swamps
Floodplain Forests
Tidal Salt Marsh
Tidal Freshwater Marsh
Mangrove Wetlands