Biology Final Exam Review 2005 Chapter 13: Evolution: Evidence of Change What does potassium-40 ultimately decay into? Fossil trees are petrified when the wood is replaced with ____. Later stages of embryos of related organisms begin to show marked differences because of ___. Scientists estimate that the number of species alive today is about _____. A series of fossils shows the development of the horse over a period of _____. What evidence suggests that the deserts of the American southwest were once covered by seas? What is the longest period of time in the geologic time scale? Carbon-14 will change into ___. Where is the best place to search for fossils? Darwin called the combination of physical traits and behaviors that help organisms survive and reproduce ____. In a rock column, the fossils in the upper layers must be ____. Uranium-238 will decay into __. All the fossils that have been collected around the world make up the ____. The early stages of embryonic development remain unchanged because the mutations that develop in these stages are ___. The energy-storing compound found in all living things is ___. The long, slow process of change in species over time is called ____. Which is least closely related? Radioactive element; stable element; radioactive decay According to Darwin, any inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s fitness for survival is a(n) ____. Scientists who specialize in the study of rocks and changes in the earth are called ____. Scientists would be very surprised if they found a complete _____. Scientists do not expect to find large animal fossils in ____. Radioactive dating is an example of ____ dating. How did Darwin explain the similarity of structure among living organisms? The wings of a bird and the front legs of a dog are called ____. A scientist has the best chance of finding fossil impressions of the soft parts of organisms in __. In humans, muscles that move the ears are ____. Can evolutionary changes involve the modification of primitive limbs into tails? The presence of 4 tiny leg bones in pythons is evidence that snakes evoled from ____. According to Darwin, the long neck and legs of the giraffe would be called ____. Which of the following did not influence Darwin? The work of Lyell; the nature of DNA; his collection of specimens; his trip on the H.M.S. Beagle As sediment piles up under water, ___ compresses the sediment into rock According to Darwin, fitness arises through the process of… Scientists believe that of all species ever alive, ____% are now extinct Darwin argued that if you look far enough back in time, you will see that all species have a ___. To determine the age of the oldest rocks, geologists use what radioactive material? What would it mean if marine fossils were found in a mountain? Giant fossils ferns in Canada is interpreted to mean… The sea floor can be pushed up into mountains by forces ____ the Earth Is the DNA of eukaryotic organisms totally unique in structure? In the past, how did people explain major geologic features of the Earth? Chapter 14: Evolution: How Change Occurs A genetic change will be maintained in a population if the change _________. Darwin’s finches are an excellent example of ________. A new species cannot usually form without _________. Occasionally, brief periods of rapid change occur between long periods of stability according to the theory of ________. The source of the random variations on which natural selection operates are changes in _______. Two analogous structures would be _________. Adaptive radiation was least important in the history of _____. The first person to bring the concept of evolution to the attention of scientists was ____. The main evidence that the mechanism of evolution proposed by Lamarck could not work came from ______. Lyell’s work affected Darwin’s thinking by presenting new information about _______. Kettlewell found that the peppered moths that were best camouflaged had the ______. Scientists explain each of the following in genetic terms except: geographic barriers; evolutionary change; species; adaptation A group of similar-looking organisms that breed with each other and produce fertile offspring make up a _______. Evolution can be defined as any change in the relative frequency of alleles in the gene pool of a ______. The random change in the frequency of a gene is _____. Plant breeders have produced the tangelo, a hybrid between a tangerine and a pomelo, by ___. Evolution resulted from the inheritance of acquired traits according to ______. What is the first that is out of order? Change in gene pool; separation of population; reproductive isolation; sharing the same island The belief that famine, disease, and war could prevent human growth was presented by ____. According to Darwinian theory, evolution occurs by ____ selection. According to the fossil record, at several times in the past huge numbers of species have disappeared suddenly in a phenomenon known as _____. The genetic equilibrium of a population may be upset by each of the following except: isolation; genetic drift; gene frequency; mass extinction. Related organisms become less alike by ______ evolution. The variations upon which natural selection operates are _____ and ______. According to Kettlewell, the peppered moths of England are a classic example of _______. Natural selection can operate only on an individual’s _____. A species will have the best chance for survival if it occupies an empty _____. The success of an organism has in passing it’s genes is ______. Since the number of humps on a camel does not seem to affect survival, they resulted from ____. Partly because of differences in beak size and mating behavior, the various species of Darwin’s finches occupied _____ niches. _____ upsets a population’s genetic equilibrium. Speciation does not occur without barrier _____. An improved understanding of _____ discredited the mechanics of evolution proposed by Lamarck. The relative frequency of alleles is not necessarily changed by ______. ______ is necessary for genetic change to occur. It is easy to _____ evolution, but harder to explain ______. Do all of an organism’s characteristics have to contribute to it’s fitness? What handicap was Darwin working under? A species has the best chance for survival if it occupies an ______ niche. Animal breeders have produced hornless cattle by ____ selection. Chapter 15: Classification Systems Taxonomists try to create taxa that group organisms according to _________. From it’s name, you know that the organism Malus sylvestris must be in the species _____. The order to which humans belong is ________. In classification, families of plants are grouped into _____. If an organism is multinucleate and does not have it’s cells separated by cell walls, it is a ______. In classifying organisms, the least clear-cut division is between the ____ and _____. If you observe a multicellular organism whose cell walls lack cellulose, it is a ______. If an organism is warmblooded, does it have to be a mammal? The common house cat is in the same genus as which of the following: tiger; mountain lion; cheetah; lion Birds, fish, and reptiles are classified as ______. Multicellular algae are classified in the kingdom _______. A heterotroph whose cell walls lack chlorophyll is a _______. If an organism makes it’s own food, it must be a(n) ______. Members of the kingdom Plantae are multicellular and _______. There is strong biochemical evidence that the earliest living things on Earth were ______. Homo habilis and Homo erectus are not in the same ______. Today, molds and yeasts are classified as _______. From their scientific names, Zea mays and Allium cepa, you know that the two organisms are ________. The organisms that led to the revision of Linnaeus’s original classification system were ____. Present-day taxonomists attempt to group organisms according to their _______. Each of the following is important in classifying except: acquired characteristics; developing embryos; analogous structures; homologous structures Differences in the structures of hemoglobin among animals resulted from mutations that must have occurred after the ancestors of the various species ________. Organic molecules that are almost identical from species to species are _______. An animallike protist, unlike an animal, is ______. The most clear-cut division between kingdoms is between the ____ and _____. An organism that is one-celled, has no nucleus, and has a cell wall without cellulose is a ____. The third smallest taxon in the Linnaean system of classification is the _____. Hemoglobin is most similar in structure in which of the following: mammals and birds; amphibians and reptiles; fishes and frogs; dogs and lions If an organism is a protist, it must be a(n) ______. Today, molds and yeasts are no longer classified as _____. Humans and chimpanzees have DNA that differs in approximately ___% of the nucleotide sequences. Do organisms sometimes need to be reclassified from one taxon to another? If you find an organism that is different from any known specimen, who has the privilege of naming it? Did all organisms evolve from present-day prokaryotes? Spirogyra crassa and Spirogyra nitida are different _____. Scientists who classify organisms on the basis of similarities and differences between homologous structures are called ______. Unicellular algae are categorized as ______. The various taxa of ______ may have evolved from plantlike protists. Scientists have identified more than _______ species of organisms on Earth so far. The similarity between the chemical _________ in Felis leo and Felis tigris shows that the two species are closely related. Chapter 16: The Origin of Life Who was the first scientist who attempted to disprove spontaneous generation? Spallanzani demonstrated that Needham found microorganisms in the gravy in his bottles, because Needham had... To demonstrate that microorganisms entered the flasks along with dust particles from the air, Pasteur… Who was the scientist whose work was most effective in disproving spontaneous generation? Stanley Miller used electric sparks and ultraviolet light to simulate _____ and _____. Scientists believe that the Earth was formed as a ________. The Earth cooled enough for solid rock to form on it’s surface about _____ billion years ago. Evidence that the Earth’s early atmosphere did not contain oxygen comes from… Evidence indicates that the Earth’s oceans developed about _____ billion years ago. Which of the following events was LEAST important for the development of multicellular organisms? Evolution of sexual reproduction; evolution of asexual reproduction; development of chloroplasts; or development of mitochondria Microfossils provide outlines of cells that have been identified as ______. Paleontologists have found fossils of microscopic organisms dated as far back as _____ billion years ago. When Stanley Miller analyzed the organic “soup” resulting from his experiment, he did not find which of the following? Urea; acetic acid; carbon dioxide; or amino acids Results from repeated experiments by Miller and others on the origin of life forms indicate what about the formation of ATP? Each of the following has been found in objects from outer space except: hydrogen gas; gaseous oxygen; ethyl alcohol; or ice Some biologists believe that the first true cells arose when lipids from a shallow pool dried and formed spheres around ______ molecules. The water that gushes out of volcanic vents contains _____ compounds. According to Bernal and Cairns-Smith, attractive forces concentrated nucleic acids onto _____ crystals. A prokaryote and eukaryote each contain: nucleus; cell membrane; organelle; or nuclear envelope Each of the following conditions around volcanic vents is favorable for reactions leading to life except: deposits of clay; a source of chemical energy; an assortment of chemicals; or weak currents The sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in a living thing involves ____ pathways. The first autotrophs were common on the Earth about _____ billion years ago. Spontaneous generation cannot occur today because the Earth contains _____ that break down organic compounds. The first great change in life on Earth occurred with the development of a modern form of _____. The modern form of photosynthesis first occurred about _____ billion years ago. Compared with earlier forms of photosynthesis, today’s plants substitute ____ for _____. The first eukaryotic cells evolved about _____ billions years ago. One beneficial effect of oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere was… Organisms that can survive only in deep mud cannot tolerate ___. Compared with anaerobic pathways, aerobic pathways obtain from each sugar molecule ______ times more energy. A meteorite that landed in Australia in 1969 contained ____. In the organic soup of the Earth’s oceans, Oparin and Fox found that amino acids linked together to form _______ proteins. The first true cells had what type of nutrition? Organisms that grew in layered, mat-like formations about 3.4 billion years ago were _____. Modern photosynthesis transformed the Earth into an ________ planet. The hypothesis that mice arose from grain is called _______. ______ bacteria can be found today in deep mud. Anaerobic organisms cannot utilize ____ in their metabolic pathways. The earliest living things were eukaryotes or prokaryotes? Today, bacteria that live near volcanic vents obtain energy from _____ compounds. Chapter 26: Sponges, Cnidarians, and Unsegmented Worms The simplest animals with bilateral symmetry are _____. Unlike plant cells, animal cells do not have _____ as their outer covering. Aquatic animals that strain floating plants and animals from the water they take in are called _______ feeders. The front of an organism is called the ______ end. The spiny objects that form the skeleton of a Venus’ flower basket are called ______. The skeleton of a natural bath sponge consists of fibers of ___. The nerve cells of cnidarians make up a(n) _____. In a medusa, the organs involved in balance are ______. What are some examples of members of the class Anthozoa? The organs in a medusa that detect the presence of light are ______. Most sea anemones, unlike corals, are _____ polyps. In the Portuguese man-of-war, a single polyp acts like a _____. The phylum Platyhelminthes consists of simple animals called ______. Members of phylum Nematoda are commonly called _______. A tapeworm is a parasite that contains what type of mouth? To get rid of extra water, planarians use _____. For locomotion, free-living flatworms usually use ______. The proglottids of a tapeworm consist mainly of ______. What are some examples of the members of class Turbellaria? The primary host of a parasite is the organism in which _____. Humans get trichinosis by eating raw or undercooked _____. The Great Barrier Reef off Australia is made up of _____. Large numbers of filarial worms may block lymph vessels and cause ______. The nervous system of a roundworm does not include a ______. Which is not a characteristic of an animal: multicellular; autotrophic; heterotrophic; eukaryotic Most biologists believe that no other group of multicellular animals evolved from the ____. Many animals that feed on tiny bits of decaying plants and animals are called ______. Flatworms are considered ____ because they have both male and female reproductive organs. In a parasitic worm, sexual reproduction occurs in the _____ host. A ____ attaches itself to the host by suckers on it’s scolex. The youngest and smallest proglottids of a tapeworm are at the _____ end. Chapter 27: Mollusks and Annelids The gills of a clam are located in the__________. The shell of a mollusk consists of calcium carbonate produced by glands in the _________. Mollusks that are carnivorous drill through the shells of other animals by means of ________. In oysters, the mixture of food and mucus is moved to the mouth by _____. What type of circulatory system does an oyster have? Land snails and slugs breathe by means of specially adapted ___. Compared with other mollusks, the cephalopods have ______ brains. In a cephalopod, the foot is divided into ______. The land slug is believed to have evolved from a ________. The group of bivalves that burrow into sand and mud includes the _______. Adult bivalves that can move around by flapping their shells are ______. Nautiluses remain upright and float in water by means of ____. The “termites of the sea” are actually ________. Mollusks are, or have been, used for ________. What is the first organ through which food travels in an earthworm? Near the front end of an earthworm, the ring vessels that contract rhythmically are known as _______. Like many marine annelids, earthworms have sensory cells located in the ________. How does an earthworm become shorter? The group of annelids that protect themselves by tufts of poisonous bristles that break off and penetrate the skin of the attacker include the _____. In mollusks, ammonia is removed from the blood and released from the body through ______. In the South Pacific, many annelids that swarm at the surface to release eggs at the same time are _______. Describe the process of reproduction in earthworms. Which term is least closely related to the others: tubifex worms; earthworm; oligochaete; polychaete What is found in the castings of earthworms? Most leeches are organisms that exist as _______. By grinding and partially digesting incredible amounts of soil, earthworms speed the return to plants of ______. Ocean plankton consists of many very small _______. Once the skin of a host has been penetrated, a leech sucks blood from the area by using it’s ____. The cephalopod whose internal shell is either thin and coiled, or flat and plate-like is the ____. Some nudibranchs protect themselves by ________. In mollusks, cellular metabolism produces nitrogen-containing wastes in the form of ______. An organism that has both male and female reproductive organs is called a _______. Some hermaphroditic mollusks, such as certain _____, switch from one sex to another. Current investigations of mollusks are based on the fact that they never develop _____. Brightly-colored _____ protrude from the worm’s tube in feather duster worms. Most tube-dwelling annelids have _______ cells that allow the animal to detect shadows of predators passing ovehead. One reason soil deteriorates when poisons are used to kill insects is that useful ____ are also killed. During feeding, a ____ may swallow up to ten times it’s weight in blood. A leech usually attaches itself to it’s host by the _____ sucker. The teeth of the radula have evolved into long, hollow darts attached to poison glands in snails known as ______. Chapter 28: Arthropods What subphylum are the insects classified in? The first arthropods appeared in the sea about _____ million years ago. What subphylum is the crayfish classified in? What subphylum is the horseshoe crab in? Name some of the characteristics of the trilobite body. Which of the following are carnivores? Herbivores? Locust, praying mantis, spider, centipede Which term is unrelated to the others? Book gills; comblike bristles; tracheal tubes; book lungs How do spiders respire? In aquatic arthropods, cell wastes diffuse from the body through unarmored places such as the ______. Unlike the eyes of humans, the eyes of many insects can detect ______ light. Where are the eardrums located in a grasshopper? Arthropods swim, walk, or fly by the pull of muscles against the _______. How do lobsters and crabs attack potential enemies? Know the steps of the molting process (text page 615) In metamorphosis, when the production of juvenile hormone drops below a critical point, the molting insect ______. A uniramian with one pair of legs on each of it’s many segments, and poison claws is a _____. What are some ways that honeybees communicate? If an arthropod has three distinct body parts, it is classified as a(n) _______. Newly-hatched horseshoe crabs are known as ______. Know the steps that occur after a spider catches it’s prey. Scorpions, unlike spiders, have pedipalps enlarged with _____. Which are arachnids- the microscopic water fleas or giant Japanese spider crabs? What disease can fleas carry? How many queens are found in colonies of social insects such as termites, ants, bees, and wasps? In a crayfish, on what body part are the swimmerets found? What subphylum of the phylum Arthropoda contains more species than all other groups of animals alive today? What insect has mouthparts specialized for sipping nectar? In flying insects, the tremendous energy required by muscles during flight is supplied by oversized ______. In the relationship in which a large fish allows a small shrimp to crawl on it’s body, the shrimp is called a ______. Which of the following is not being investigated as an application of a chemical from an arthropod? chitin sprayed on fruit to prevent spoilage; using barnacle adhesive in dentistry; using spider venom as a pesticide; using mosquito blood to prevent river blindness In some arthropods, _____ are used for both respiration and excretion. _____ typically have three pairs of walking legs. A queen honeybee prevents development of rival queens by producing the pheromone ____. Sleeping sickness and river blindness are diseases carried by biting _____. An extract of ______ is used to test for purity of medicines. Male crickets chirp to attract females by rubbing together their ______. The legs and bodies of worker bees are covered with _____ that collect pollen. The enormous amount of energy required by insects during flight is supplied by oversized _____. Centipedes and millipedes: which are carnivores and which are herbivores? The _____ are thought to have evolved on land during the Devonian period, about 400 million years ago. Chapter 29: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates Which class of echinoderms most closely resembles starfish in appearance? As the larvae of echinoderms become adults, their form changes from _____ symmetry to ______ symmetry. The skeleton of an echinoderm is made up of ________. In echinoderms, the water vascular system is involved with what type of activities? On which side of the starfish is the anus located? Which of the following is not a part of the echinoderm’s water vascular system: madreporite; ring canal; radial canals; skin gills What are some members of the most ancient class of echinoderms? Does a starfish have any specialized systems? If so, what are they? What is the function of the statocysts? What are the echinoderms that resemble warty, moving pickles? Skeletal plates are reduced to tiny vestiges inside the soft, muscular body of a ______. What kind of symmetry do the larvae of starfish have? Potential anti-cancer and anti-viral drugs are produced from chemicals extracted from _____. Several years ago in a wide area of the Pacific Ocean, extensive damage was done to coral reefs by the sudden appearance of ________. In many coastal areas, the distribution of algae is controlled by _______. Which term is least closely related to the others: chordate; vertebrate; invertebrate; lancelet Only during the early part of embryonic life do most chordates have a _____. In aquatic chordates, such as lancelets and fishes, the pharyngeal slits became the _______. Unlike most chordates, lancelets lack ______. Lancelets move by bending their bodies back and forth because they lack _________. Some scientists believe that the true chordate characteristic is ______. What does the similarity in structure between vertebrates and invertebrates indicate about their ancestors? In some species of echinoderms, gas exchange occurs through which of the following: the anus; skin gills; radial canals; statocysts Echinoderms, like many invertebrates, excrete nitrogen-containing wastes primarily in the form of _______. An adult starfish has ____ symmetry. Certain stages in the development of echinoderms are similar to stages in the development of some _____. What do echinoderms use their tube feet for? Heart urchins and sand dollars live hidden in burrows in _____. During the day, sea urchins wedge themselves in ______. Most starfish move along the ocean bottom and prey on ____. The spines of some _____ are covered with sacs containing blue poisons. Several years ago in the Pacific Ocean, extensive damage was done to ______ by crown-of-thorns starfish. In many coastal areas, the sea urchins control the distribution of ______. The muscles of a lancelet are arranged in paired ___-shaped units. Chapter 31: Fishes and Amphibians A vertebrate that has moist skin with glands, but lacks scales and claws is a(n) ________. If an amphibian still has a tail after it undergoes the process of metamorphosis, it is probably a _______. As adults, both frogs and toads have hind legs adapted for ____. To breathe, adult amphibians (unlike the larvae) use their ___. In the circulatory system of adult amphibians, the first loop carries what oxygen-content of blood, and to what location? Fishes are characterized by each of the following except: a bony skeleton; scales; fins; pharyngeal gills Describe the first fishes according to their body covering and jaws. The pectoral fins of fishes evolved into what structure in terrestrial animals? What is the largest known fish? Discuss some of the extraordinary feeding adaptations of fish. In fishes, blood from the muscles and organs collects in the ___. Give some examples of the jawless fishes. How do skates and rays move? Why are coelacanths important in evolutionary history? Adult amphibians are vertebrates, but do they lay eggs with a shell on them? Huge amphibians became so numerous 345 to 285 million years ago that the term “Age of Amphibians” is often applied to this period named _____ Period. How do tadpoles, salamander larvae, and a few adult salamanders get rid of excess carbon dioxide? The heart of a tadpole has how many chambers? In vertebrates, what are the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys? In an amphibian, what does the nictitating membrane cover? In a frog, blood returning from the legs collects in the _____. The red eft is a stage of development of the _____. The circulatory system of a fish is called a _____-loop. If a fish is cartilaginous and has jaws, it is classified in the class ______. The kidneys of a freshwater fish pump out much _____ urine. Salmon can distinguish between the odor of their home stream and others by using their _____. Give an example of an oviparous fish that cares for their young. The heyday of the amphibians ended because ______. How do adult amphibians typically get their food? What part of the frog and toad brain coordinates jumping? Were the first fishes armored with jaws? How many species of living lobe-finned fishes are there today? The feeding adaptation in fish that revolutionized vertebrate evolution was the ____. During the _____ and ______ Periods, jawless fishes underwent a major adaptive radiation. In moist woods, look under ____ to find toads. Fishes in which embryos are nourished directly inside the body are called ______. Because of their external fertilization, frogs must be _____. A fish in which the teeth are constantly replaced throughout life is the _____. The _____ were ultimately an evolutionary dead end. Chapter 32: Reptiles and Birds The tuatara is the only surviving member of the order ______. The only place on Earth that lacks reptiles are ______. Birds maintain an extremely efficient gas exchange system, because they have ______. What is different about the reptile egg compared to the amphibian egg? A developing bird embryo obtains nutrients from the egg’s _____. A four-chambered heart is found among reptiles in the order ____. A reptile that moves without legs may be a _____. A tortoise is a reptile that lives where? The ventral part of a turtle’s shell is called the ______. Which term is least closely related to the others: contour feathers; down feathers; general body feathers; flight feathers The great adaptive radiation of the reptiles took place during the ______ Period. Reptiles whose hearts have two atria and two ventricles are in the Order _______. The largest living reptile that gives us some idea of what the dinosaurs looked like is the ____. Can a rattlesnake detect warmth given off by the body of an animal? An animal that has a tube in the floor of it’s mouth so it can breathe and swallow at the same time is a(n) _____. Reptiles eliminate liquid wastes through their _____. Snakes have organs in the roof of the mouth to aid what sense? Snakes do each of the following to move except: press ventral scales against the ground; place their vestigial limbs on the ground; expand the muscles around their ribs; contract their muscles in waves The reptile that uses a pineal gland to detect changes in the length of day is the ______. What are oviparous reptiles? There is little doubt that the first terrestrial vertebrates were ___. Ectotherms or endotherms? How do reptiles control their body temperature? Unlike modern birds, Archaeopteryx had _____. In some species of birds, food that is fed to the young is produced in the _____. Why would an endotherm use more food than an ectotherm of the same size? Birds that drink large amounts of sea water will excrete salt from their salt glands located ____. Penguins are birds that have feet and wings reduced to _____. Among the following, birds are least useful in: pollinating flowers; dispersing plant seeds; eating insects; destroying predators During the late Triassic and Jurassic Periods, there was a great adaptive radiation of ____. Eagles and hawks are carnivorous birds that have sharp talons and ______. At the end of the ____ Period, the dinosaurs underwent a great mass extinction. Some biologists think the mass extinction of dinosaurs resulted from the impact of a _____. Animals that lay eggs that develop outside the mother’s body are called _____. When a baby chick is ready to hatch, it makes a small hole in the shell using it’s _____. During a peacock’s breeding season, the ____ attracts the ____ by displaying bright-colored feathers. _____-blooded animals can have a body temperature higher than their surroundings. Are birds that catch prey in sharp talons and pointed beaks likely to be carnivores or herbivores? A birds’s heart pumps oxygen-____ blood to the wings. Some ______ birds use a magnetic sense to navigate. When you eat the “white meat” of a non-flying bird, you are eating muscles that were not used for _____. Chapter 33: Mammals The most primitive mammals are the ______. To release heat from their body when necessary, mammals use their _______. Carnivores use each of the following to catch or grasp their prey except: sharp canines; flat molars; sharp claws; bursts of speed In a cow’s rumen, the enzymes needed to break down cellulose are produced by _______ After a certain amount of time, a cow regurgitates plant food into the mouth from it’s ______. The saliva of vampire bats contains a chemical that _____. Giant blue whales use their baleen for ______. The size of the chest cavity increases when the ______. Many mammals are able to produce sounds when their vocal cords are forced to vibrate by __. The blood pumped from the heart to the lungs ______. As mammals evolved, they developed each of the following characteristics except: mammary glands; viviparous reproduction; endothermy; variable body temperature The mammal heart has ____ atria and ____ ventricles. In mammals, the chest cavity is separated from the abdomen by the ______. The mammalian circulatory system consists of _____ closed circuits. Marsupials experiences great adaptive radiation in ____. Herbivores chew by moving their jaws in what type of movement? In mammals, the composition and levels of body fluids are controlled by the _____. Body functions such as breathing and heart rate are under the control of what part of the brain? The mammals that see color best do not include: monkeys; dogs; apes; humans. Two animals that detect sounds of higher frequencies than humans are: dogs and elephants; elephants and cats; dogs and bats; bats and cats. To detect a distant predator, antelopes use their sense of ____ and _____. A marsupial that is not native to Australia is the _____. The animal that is least closely related to the others is: mouse; rabbit; beaver; porcupine Seals and bears are classified in the order ______. Each of the following is true except: leopards hunt and kill carnivores for food; squirrels feed on nuts and seeds; herds of zebras eat their way across savannas; herds of reindeer eat lichens across the tundra An ungulate is in either order ______ or order ________. The toothless mammals are classified in the order _____. Mammals had split into 3 groups by the end of the _____ period. The mammals that experienced a period of adaptive radiation in South America and Antarctica were the _____. Mammals remain active and are able to function well after dark because they are _____. Vertebrate digestive systems have not evolved the ability to produce enzymes that digest _____. What type of reproduction do the monotremes have? In ruminants, food swallowed the second time goes to the ____. A ____ spends most of it’s life hanging upside down in trees. At one time, the ancestors of ____ and _____ lived on land. Slow-moving herbivores that live in rivers and streams in parts of Florida and South America are in the order ______. Chapter 34: Humans A primate’s three-dimensional view of the world is due to it’s _______ vision. Humans belong to each of the following groups except: anthropoids; prosimians; hominoids; hominids The anthropoids that are least closely related to the others are: great apes; humans; New World monkeys; Old World monkeys How did Linnaeus classify humans? The complex behavior of primates depends mainly upon their ______. Each of the following is a prosimian except: lemur; loris; baboon; aye-aye The first fossil placed in the genus Homo was ______. Anthropoid branches separated when the continents ______. The anthropoid branch that contains the Old World monkeys does not include: lemurs; humans; great apes; baboons. The tree-dwelling anthropoids with prehensile tails are classified as _______. The two anthropoid branches separated about ____ years ago. What does the group of great apes include? Hominids are classified according to what type of nutrition? The search for the common ancestor of apes and humans is centered in _____. What are the human’s closest living relatives? In appearance, people living today are most like the _____. Each of the following is classified as Australopithecus except: robustus; erectus; boisei; afarensis What is one major advantage that hominids have over other primates? The first group of mammals to have flexible fingers and toes were the ____. What were some of the structures that contributed to the upright posture of humans? Adaptations that are not specific to hominids, but allowed primates to swing through the tree include ____. The Australopithecus skeleton found by Johansen and White was known to be female by it’s ______. The footprints of two hominids together found by Mary Leakey is evidence that Austropithecus ______. Compared with australopithecenes, Homo habilis had _______. How did Cro-Magnons differ from the Neanderthals? Hominoids are also known as ______. Ancient human tools and cultures are studied by ______. Scientists agree that humans and apes evolved from _______. Compared with other mammals, primates have _____ faces. All primates have flexible _____. You can usually identify a prosimian by it’s _____ eyes. The brain of a Homo sapiens is about _____ as large as a chimpanzee. ______ spread from Africa to Europe to Asia. In the caves of China, charred animal bones around firesites are evidence that _______ used fire for cooking half a million years ago. If you unearthed stone and bone tools, spear points, chisels, and needles- you have found objects used by ________. Human ancestors were able to grasp tools because of their _______.