Chapter 17 The Evolution of Animals
... predator-prey relationships that led to diverse adaptations
to feed, move, and provide protection.
• Another hypothesis, studying evolution and development,
called evo-devo, focuses on the evolution of genes that
control the development of animal forms.
Section 28–1 Introduction to the Arthropods
... a. Most primitive arthropods had only one or two body segments.
b. Arthropod appendages evolved into different forms.
c. The early body plan was modified gradually.
d. Appendages of living arthropods include wings, flippers, and mouthparts.
Section 28–1 Introduction to the Arthropods
... 17. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about the response to
the environment by arthropods.
a. Most arthropods have sophisticated sense organs.
b. All arthropods have a brain.
c. Ganglia along a ventral nerve cord coordinate the movements
of individual legs.
d. Very few arthropods have ...
Zoology Foldables CH 32-1 Introduction To The Mammals
... OUTSIDE: The placenta allows the embryo to develop much longer inside the mother’s body.
INSIDE: For mammals such as rats, that time is a few weeks. For elephants, the embryo spends two years developing
inside the mother.
Foldable #6 (Be creative and do a good job with this…)
OUSIDE: 12 Orders of Ma ...
Chapter 33: Mammals
... ancestors, mammals have evolved different
structures for movement
Running mammals can achieve great speeds on
Climbing mammals have hands and feet with
flexible digits that can grasp vines and branches
Flying mammals have arms modified to support
flaps of skin that form wings
Aquatic ma ...
Squid Biology/Anatomy Notes, based on Loligo sp
... by contraction of the MANTLE. Some rare, deep-water squid that
swim using webbed arms don't have gills, the webs are so thin that
they work as gills.
Squid are very successful predators. They feed on fish, shrimp, just about anything swimming that's
smaller than them. Squid have eight ARMS an ...
Universe of Aquatic Inverts - KsuWeb
... muscles resulting in "thrashing" movement. Because their internal
pressure is high, this causes the body to flex rather than flatten.
FRESHWATER TAXONOMIC INFO:
Typically <1cm in length. Freshwater species are poorly known due to size
and difficulty in identification. Body typically translucent and ...
... case. Ultimately, it takes just as much faith—if not more—to believe that only
matter and natural laws can explain the universe.
The fact that the scientific community denies the supernatural does not mean that
all scientists are atheists—many claim to be Christians or have other religious
Snails - Esc20.net
... Aquatic Snails in the Classroom
Aquatic snails are often kept in a classroom fish aquarium; but the fish usually receive most of the
attention, while the snails are often overlooked or receive only superficial consideration. Keeping and
studying snails as a separate classroom project, however, can p ...
Chapter 9 – Gaseous Exchange in Humans
... The breathing mechanism involves two stages:
Expiration (breathing out): During this process,the
thorax decreases in volume to its normal size,this causes air
pressure in the lungs to increase, thus forcing air out of the
lungs to the atmosphere.
To do this,
• the external intercostal muscles relax ...
LECTURES FOR ZOO 1010—CHAPTER 1
... features in the adult form, i.e., (1) a dorsal tubular nerve cord, (2) a supportive
notochord, (3) pharyngeal slits, (4) a postanal tail, and (5) endostyle or thyroid gland.
Today, however, it is not thought to be the vertebrate ancestor, but rather an early
offshoot of chordate evolution. It lacks ...
Chapter 33: Mammals
... The two separate circuits – one to and from the lungs, the other to and from the rest of the
body – efficiently transports gases and nutrients to every cell of a mammal’s body
Chapter 17 Notes
... The Discovery of the Hobbit People
• In 2003, anthropologists discovered bones on the
Indonesian island of Flores, dating back about
18,000 years, of people just over three feet tall,
and with heads one-third the size of modern
• Since the initial discovery, researchers have
unearthed the bo ...
... Some land invertebrates, such as earthworms, that live in
moist environments can respire across their skin, as long
as it stays moist.
In other invertebrates, such as land snails, respiration is
Chapter 1 The Vertebrate Story: An Overview
... Amniotes: with four extraembryonic
membrane, including amnion
Fig. 1.20 Female salamander guarding
Fig. 1.21 Precocial young 早熟
Altricial young 晚熟
12. Growth and Development
General characters develop first, then
the more specific characters
Period of parental care ...
Vertebrate Origins 2
... probably ‘teeth.’ These are referred to
as ‘conodont elements.’ Impressions of
complete conodont animals have been
Chapter 17 - Fullfrontalanatomy.com
... • The sessile polyp – not able to move about
• The floating medusa – the “mobile stage”
– Cnidarians are carnivores that use tentacles, armed with cnidocytes
(“stinging cells”), to capture prey.
... Chimpanzees and humans diverged from
a common ancestor that lived in Africa
6–7 million years ago. Since then, at least
14 humanlike species have existed.
27-2 Respiration PowerPoint
... Alveoli provide an enormous surface area for gas exchange, and enable
mammals to take in the large amounts of oxygen required by their high
Lesson Overview - Mater Academy of International Studies
... dioxide as a waste product. For that reason, all animals must obtain
oxygen from their environment and release carbon dioxide.
Humans can drown because our lungs can’t extract the oxygen we need
from water. Most fishes have the opposite problem; out of water, their
Rowing locomotion by a stonefly that possesses the ancestral
... clade of crustaceans, whose wings evolved from mobile
gills that already had the articulation, musculature
and neural pattern required for creating fluid dynamic
forces. This hypothesis has received support from
recent phylogenetic and developmental studies (see
below), yet it remains to be determin ...
All about Leeches - Center for Invertebrate Biology
... Some leeches with a proboscis and others that have jaws are temporary
ectoparasites on a variety of different vertebrates including fish, turtles,
crocodiles, and humans. These are the bloodsuckers and are the ones that
most people think of when the word “leech” is mentioned. They don't need
much in ...
... The kick seine method is a simple procedure for collecting stream-dwelling macroinvertebrates. It is used in riffle areas
where the majority of the organisms prefer to live. This method can be quite effective in determining relative stream
health; however, it is only as good as the sampling techniqu ...
... surface and avoid being swept away by the current. Water pennies are usually found in riffles,
where water velocity and turbulence are high.
Burrowers and sprawlers are adapted to inhabit
sediments comprised mainly of sand and silt. Burrowing mayflies (Ephemeroptera–Ephemeridae)
have large, spade-sh ...
... • have basic mouthparts, without any special modifications
• basic mouthparts include two jaw like structures (mandibles) for cutting and
grinding and often an upper lip (labrum) and a lower lip (labium) to help
keep food in their mouths
• Material is usually >1 mm, referred to as Coarse Particulate ...
Aquatic ape hypothesis
The aquatic ape hypothesis (AAH), often also referred to as aquatic ape theory (AAT), is a proposal that the evolutionary ancestors of modern humans spent a period of time adapting to a semiaquatic existence. The hypothesis was first proposed by German pathologist Max Westenhöfer in 1942 and then independently by English marine biologist Alister Hardy in 1960; however, the arguments of both men failed to achieve significant popular notice. After Hardy, the theory's most prominent proponent was former television documentary writer Elaine Morgan, who wrote a series of books on the topic, and she achieved a larger awareness of the theory after her first work appeared in 1972. However, the scientific reception of her ideas remained mixed to negative, subject to several specific criticisms such as the lack of physical evidence offered.AAH arguments made by Morgan have asserted that female behavior was the most compelling driver of human evolution and that peaceful co-operation among early humans were due to largely feminine influences, Morgan being heavily influenced by the feminist movement. However, the extant scientific consensus is that humans first evolved during a period of rapid climate fluctuations between wet and dry periods, with a complex set of conditions existing that humans adapted to by intermingled male and female parenting efforts. Also, the mainstream view states that most of the adaptations that distinguish humans from the great apes are adaptations to a terrestrial situation, as opposed to an earlier, arboreal environment. Rejected by anthropologists broadly, few of them have explicitly evaluated AAH in scientific journals, and those that have reviewed the idea in depth have been largely critical. General analysis by non-specialists, such as by the news-magazine Discover, have also broadly rejected the theory.The AAH is one of many hypotheses attempting to explain human evolution through one single causal mechanism, but the evolutionary fossil record does not support any such proposal. The notion itself has been criticized by experts as being internally inconsistent, having less explanatory power than its proponents claim, and suffering from the feature that alternative terrestrial hypotheses are much better supported. The attractiveness of believing in simplistic single-cause explanations over the much more complex, but better-supported models with multiple causality has been cited as a primary reason for the popularity of the idea with non-experts. Advocacy for the AAH has been labeled by commentators such as science writer Brian Regal as being more ideological and political rather than scientific and hence, pseudoscientific.