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Transcript
Station #1: Prokaryotic VS Eukaryotic Cells
If the website is not already opened, go to:
www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/cell_structure/cell_structure.htm
Start by exploring each of the prokaryotic, animal, and plant cells to rekindle your knowledge of the
organelles that exist in each type of cell. Answer all questions on the site, as well as the ones below. Feel
free to play around with the online “construct a cell” to familiarize yourself with the constructions of each
of the cells. Once you have answered all questions, use any of the material provided to construct correctly
ONE prokaryotic cell and ONE eukaryotic cell with your partner. Use your creativity, but make sure all
organelles for each type of cell are present!! 
1. Which of the organelles is found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and what is it used for?
 Cell membrane
 Used for regulation of entry and exit of nutrients and waste where some important
enzyme activity is found
2. Which organelle is found only in plant cells and what is it used for?
 Chloroplasts
 Site of photosynthesis, converting light energy into chemical energy
Station #2: Kingdom Protista
1. Why does the protist kingdom provide a challenge to taxonomists?
The protist kingdom provides a challenge to taxonomists because they are so varied – some are animal like,
some plant like, some fungus like. They do not appear to fall into a ‘set’ and ‘distinctive’ category.
2. Where does our text place the algae? Where do other taxonomists place the algae and why?
Kingdom Protista; These taxonomists believe that algae are multicellular eukaryotes that perform
photosynthesis –which are also how plants are defined.
3. How does our text separate protists into groups?
Protists are separated into groups based on nutritional patterns. Animal-like, Fungus-like, Plant-like.
4. Fill in the following table.
Animal-Like Protists – General Characteristics
Protist
Characteristics and Examples
 One or more flagella to help organism move through water
Zooflagellates


Amoeba




Ciliates




Sporozoans



Heterotrophic – eat other protists, parasites, pathogens
Others are internal parasites on animals
Single celled – no body shape
Pseudopods to help them move and feed
Endocytosis – eat by engulfing organisms with pseudopods
Some are parasitic in tropical regions
Covered in cilia (hairlike projections)
Rigid covering called pellicle to help ciliates keep their shape
Aquatic and heterotropic
Feed from oral groove
Produce spores
Non-motile, parasitic
Plasmodium is an example – causes malaria in humans
5. Outline the cause, transmission, and symptoms of each of the following:
a. Sleeping Sickness
i. caused by zooflagellate Trypoansomo gambiensis. Carrier is tsete fly. Humans get disease if
bitten by an infected host fly. Symptoms: fever, chills, skin rash; if this attacks the nervous
system, it can be fatal.
b. Amoebic Dysentery
i. caused by Entamoeba found in tropical regions. Person gets sick if they drink infected water.
Ameoba inters the digestive system and feed on the intestinal walls – passed out in feces and
this is how they can get into the water supply.
c. Malaria
i. a sporozoan protest that obtain nutrients from the bodies of their hosts called Plasmodium.
When a female mosquito infected with \plasmodium bites a human, Plasmodium is
transmitted into the human circulatory system. They infect blood cells and when these
infected RBCs burst, large amounts of toxins fill the bloodstream and these toxins cause the
malaria symptoms.
6. Fill in the following table.
Fungus-Like Protists – General Characteristics
Protist
Characteristics and Examples
 Single cells, many nuclei in each
Acellular Slime
Moulds
Cellular Slime
Moulds
Water Moulds

Most of life cycle as a wall-less mass (plasmodium) and moves by pseudopods


When food runs out, slime forms reproductive structures called fruiting bodies
which produce spores
Live in fresh water, damp soil or decaying matter

Move as amoeba-like cells


When food is scarce, they come together for form a large multicellular mass
Live in water, some on land

Example: whitish cottony mould growing on dead fish

Feed on remains of dead plants and animals

Some are parasitic and attack crops
7. Name the protist that was responsible for the emigration of millions of Irish people during the mid
1800s.
Phytophthora infestans
8. Fill in the following table.
Plant-Like Protists – General Characteristics
Protist
Characteristics and Examples
 Unicellular flagellates
Euglenoids
Diatoms
Dinoflagellates
Green Algae

Can use photosynthesis


Organism Euglena feeds via photosynthesis and in the dark it feeds as a
heterotroph on dead organic material
Have a golden colouration due to pigments

Each species has a unique shape


Abundant in oceans and a key food source for other organisms
Single celled algae that have 2 flagella

Most photosynthetic, some are heterotrophic

Each species has a unique shape


Tend to be luminescent; when surrounding water is agitated, they give off light
Each cell has 2 flagella that move the cell around

Live in fresh water

ancient green algae thought to have given rise to first plants due to cellulose in
their cell walls
9. Draw your versions of the zooflagellate, paramecium, and amoeba below. Get some colour in
there! 
Zooflagellate
Paramecium
Amoeba
Station # 3: Kingdom Fungi
1. What does ‘saprobe’ mean?
Organisms that absorb their food from decaying (dead) matter – they are decomposers
2. Name the characteristic used to classify fungi into various phyla. How does this characteristic
differ between the phyla?.
The 100 000 species of fungi are grouped into divisions based on their pattern of sexual reproduction :
 Fungi with spores in a caselike structure = sporangium
 Fungi with spores in a saclike structure = ascus
 Fungi with spores that form club like structure = basidium
3. Draw a diagram of a typical mushroom. Label all relevant structures.
Caselike Fungi
Examples of
these
Fungi
General
Characteristics

Bread mould

Spores in a caselike
structure
Most are terrestrial
saprobes


Type/Description Using bread mould as an
of Reproduction example:

Saclike Fungi

Asexual under
favourable
conditions
 Caselike structures
called sporangia
grow at tips of
bread mould and
each can produce
several thousands
of spores
 Sporangium break
open and air
currents carry
spores to germinate
elsewhere
Mildews, moulds,
some yeasts
Spores in a saclike
structure
 Sac fungi make 2
types of spores –
spores made from
sexual reproduction
are called ascospores
and spores made
asexually are called
conidia
 Some yeasts cause
infections of skin,
lungs, kidneys; many
are parasitic and
cause disease in
trees
YEAST as an example:
 Ideal conditions =
budding
 Conditions lacking
oxygen =
fermentation, a type
of anaerobic
respiration
Clublike Fungi

Mushrooms, rusts,
smuts, puffballs

Spores in a clublike
structure
Using Mushrooms as an
example:
 Hypae form an
underground network
called a mycelium and
a reproductive
structure above
ground called a
fruiting body
 Different mushrooms
are classified based on
their umbrellalike caps
Using Mushrooms as an
example:
 Cap of each mushroom
contains gills that
come out like spokes
on a wheel
 Each gill has thousands
of clublike
reproductive cells
called basidia
 Each basidia has
thousands of spores
that are blown by the
wind, and hopefully
will germinate in the
ground where they
land.
Nutritional
Habits

Using Bread mould as an
example:




Use water and
sugars from bread
to feed off of
In general, are
saprobes – feast off
of dead or decaying
matter.
Release digestive
enzymes into their
environment on
dead organic matter
to break it down
Fungi then absorb
the digested food
through their cell
wall


In general, are
saprobes – feast off
of dead or decaying
matter.
Release digestive
enzymes into their
environment on
dead organic matter
to break it down
Fungi then absorb
the digested food
through their cell
wall



In general, are
saprobes – feast off of
dead or decaying
matter.
Release digestive
enzymes into their
environment on dead
organic matter to
break it down
Fungi then absorb the
digested food through
their cell wall
4. Can all fungi be classified into those 3 divisions? Why or why not?
Some species have no known sexual phases and cannot be classified into these 3 divisions; these are
imperfect fungi.
5. Describe the discovery of Penicillium. What is it? Who was is discovered by? What is it used for?


1928 Sir Alexander Fleming observed Penicillium growing with some bacteria – Penicillium mould
prevented the growth of the bacterium
Fleming eventually isolated a chemical substance produced by the fungus - Penicillin

Was the first antibiotic to come into medical use to fight infectious diseases caused by bacteria
6. How does Penicillium work as an antibiotic?
Penicillium prevents the formation of cell walls in reproducing bacteria. No cell wall, and bacteria most likely
will not survive the reproduction process.
7. Describe athlete’s foot – what exactly is it? What are its signs and symptoms?



Caused by mould Trichophyton rubrum
Occurs between toes and on soles of feet
Fungus thrives in warm, damp places like floors of showers, pools and gyms

Symptoms: reddened, cracked and peeling skin with itching or burning and stinging sensations
Station # 4: Kingdom Animalia – General Characteristics
1. Distinguish between radial and bilateral symmetry and provide an example of an organism for
each type.
radial symmetry
bilateral symmetry
 No preferred direction of motion
 Mobile animals with preferred
orientation
 Can meet environment equally well
in any direction
 Generally, head region enters a
location first
 Sense organs not all in one place
 Ex: insects, humans
 Ex: hydra, jellyfish, sea stars
2. Into which two groups is this kingdom divided? Describe each of the groups and provide an
example of each.
invertebrates
vertebrates
 no backbone
 have backbone/notochord for part of
their lives as a guide for axial
 ex: insects, molluscs, jellyfish,
skeleton
snails, etc.
 ex: humans, dogs, horses, etc.
3. List the features that all animals have in common.
 Multicellular, eukaryotic cells
 Only a cell membrane, not a cell wall
 All heterotrophic (cannot make own food, unlike plants)
4. Explain the difference between a sessile organism and a motile organism. How would being a
hermaphrodite be an advantage for sessile organisms?
sessile
motile
 not capable of independent
 capable of movement
movement
 can move from place to place
 remain in fixed location all of adult
lives
5. Humans have a high opinion of themselves. It has been said that we are the most highly
evolved and specialized animal. In what was is this true or untrue?
 Varied answers 
Station # 5: Kingdom Animalia - Phyla Focus
1. What are some of the similarities and differences between echinoderms and molluscs? Which do
you think is more complex? Justify your answer.
molluscs
 complete digestive tract with 2 ends
 not all live in ocean


bilaterally symmetrical
radula
echinoderms
 same
 all members live in ocean
 eat molluscs
 radially symmetrical
 water vascular system
2. Make a list of the different phyla of invertebrates explored here. Indicate what type of symmetry is
demonstrated by each phylum.
See below!
3. Fill in the following chart using the Shape of Life Activity Guide and other reference pages.
Phylum
porifera
cnidaria









platyhelminthes
annelida











General Characteristics & Reproduction Method(s)
Assymetrical
Organized as assemblage of specialized cells
No tissues
No skeleton, made of spicules
Reproduction in body of sponge
Ex: sponges
2 tissue layers with nerve and muscle tissues
Nematocysts: structures in special cells that can act in
offense and defense
2 main life forms:
 Free-swimming medusa (jellyfish)
 Stationary polyp (anemone)
Bilaterally symmetrical with a head and a tail
Centralized nervous system
3 tissue layers
No body cavity (coelem)
No circulatory system
No hard skeleton
Ex: flatworms
Elongate and bilaterally symmetrical
Segmented true body cavity
Complete circulatory system with capillaries, arteries,
veins
Body wall made of circular and lengthwise muscles
arthropoda
mollusca











echinodermata





chordata







Continuous gut from mouth to anus
Bristle-like setae
Ex: earthworms, leeches
Hard exoskeleton made of chitin and protein
Possess numerous jointed appendages and segmented
body
Must molt to grow
Bilaterally symmetrical
Ex: insects, spiders, crustaceans
Radula: rasping, tongue-like organ
Muscular foot for locomotion and other things
Mantle: sheet of tissue that covers body and can secrete
shell and houses gill and lungs
Calcium shell in most organisms
Ex: clams, snails, slugs, octopi
Internal skeleton made of little calcium plates
5 part radial symmetry
Water vascular system: special fluid-filled system
operating tube feet
Ex: sea starts, sea cucumbers
Notochord: rod-like above the guy, below nerve chord
Dorsal nerve chord: hollow tube differentiating brain and
spinal cord
Gill clefts: behind mouth, in front of esophagus
Segmented muscles
Post-anal tail
Ex: vertebrates, tunicates, lancelates