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Forces and Motion Learning Outcomes
In this unit students will investigate the effects of gravity and friction on
the motion of an object. Students will explore how unbalanced forces result
in a change in motion.
Changes in Motion
1. Speed is how fast an object is moving (distance divided by time)
2. Velocity tells us the speed of a moving object and its direction
3. Acceleration is an object’s change in velocity divided by the time it
Takes for that change to occur.
4. Gravity is the force that pulls everything around you towards the
center of the Earth
5. Friction is a force that acts between any two surfaces in contact with
one another and prevents or slows motion.
6. Balanced forces are equal forces that act in opposite directions on an
object and cancel one another out
7. Unbalanced forces are forces that don’t cancel one another out
Newton’s Laws of Motion
8. 1st Inertia This law states that … An object at rest will remain at rest
unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues
in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted
upon by an unbalanced force.
9. 2nd Force, Mass, Acceleration
Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater
the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of
force needed (to accelerate the object).
10. 3rd Action/Reaction
For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action.
This means that in order to launch a rocket upward, the force of the
engine thrust is downward.
11. Force is the push or pull
12. Gravitational Force is the force that acts between any two masses in
the universe and pulls them towards one another
13. Mass is the amount of matter in an object
14. Weight is the measurement of the force of gravity on an object
15. Inertia is the tendency of matter to resist a change in its state of
16. Friction is a force that acts between any to surfaces in contact with
one another by preventing or slowing motion
17. Matter is everything that takes up space and has mass Ex. Living and
non living materials
18. Motion is a change in position
19. Sir Isaac Newton, a 17th century English physicist and
mathematician, spent his life studying forces. He known for the
development of the Laws of Motion.
Scientific Method
1. State the problem or question
2. Form a testable hypothesis
3. Design an experiment
4. Collect and analyze data
5. Draw conclusions
6. Communicate Results
Law: A rule describing a consistent pattern in Nature. It happens every
time all the time.
Theory: A well tested explanation of something that occurs
Hypothesis: A prediction that can be tested
System: A collection of interrelated parts that perform a specific function.
When a snail crossed the road, he was run over by a turtle. Regaining
consciousness in the emergency room, he was asked what caused the
accident. "I really can't remember," the snail replied. "You see, it all
happened so fast."