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Transcript

Forces and Motion Learning Outcomes In this unit students will investigate the effects of gravity and friction on the motion of an object. Students will explore how unbalanced forces result in a change in motion. Changes in Motion 1. Speed is how fast an object is moving (distance divided by time) 2. Velocity tells us the speed of a moving object and its direction 3. Acceleration is an object’s change in velocity divided by the time it Takes for that change to occur. Forces 4. Gravity is the force that pulls everything around you towards the center of the Earth 5. Friction is a force that acts between any two surfaces in contact with one another and prevents or slows motion. 6. Balanced forces are equal forces that act in opposite directions on an object and cancel one another out 7. Unbalanced forces are forces that don’t cancel one another out Newton’s Laws of Motion 8. 1st Inertia This law states that … An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. 9. 2nd Force, Mass, Acceleration Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object). 10. 3rd Action/Reaction For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action. This means that in order to launch a rocket upward, the force of the engine thrust is downward. 11. Force is the push or pull 12. Gravitational Force is the force that acts between any two masses in the universe and pulls them towards one another 13. Mass is the amount of matter in an object 14. Weight is the measurement of the force of gravity on an object 15. Inertia is the tendency of matter to resist a change in its state of motion 16. Friction is a force that acts between any to surfaces in contact with one another by preventing or slowing motion 17. Matter is everything that takes up space and has mass Ex. Living and non living materials 18. Motion is a change in position 19. Sir Isaac Newton, a 17th century English physicist and mathematician, spent his life studying forces. He known for the development of the Laws of Motion. Scientific Method 1. State the problem or question 2. Form a testable hypothesis 3. Design an experiment 4. Collect and analyze data 5. Draw conclusions 6. Communicate Results Law: A rule describing a consistent pattern in Nature. It happens every time all the time. Theory: A well tested explanation of something that occurs Hypothesis: A prediction that can be tested System: A collection of interrelated parts that perform a specific function. When a snail crossed the road, he was run over by a turtle. Regaining consciousness in the emergency room, he was asked what caused the accident. "I really can't remember," the snail replied. "You see, it all happened so fast."