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Name:___________________________
World History: Byzantine Empire and Russia
Notes Packet Ch. 10
Ch. 10: Byzantine Empire and Russia
Section: 10.1 The Byzantine Empire



The Growth of the Byzantine Empire
– Emperor Justinian I (r. 527 – 565 AD) attempts to revive the Roman
Empire under his rule
– Justinian Code
 ______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
– This collection became the Justinian Code and was
organized into four parts
 _______ __________: contained Roman laws
 _______ ____________: summarized Roman legal
opinions
 _______ __________________: guided law
students
 _______ ___________________: contained laws
passed after 534 AD
– The Justinian Code preserved the Roman idea that people
should be ruled by the law not the whims of rulers
– Able advisors
 Theodora, empress and wife or Justinian, that convinced Justinian
to give women more rights such as the right to divorce and own
property the same value of their dowry (the money or goods a wife
brought to a husband in marriage)
– ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
 Belisarius, general of all Justinian's armies that conquered much of
the old _______________ _______________ _______________
Strengths of the Empire
– ____________________________________________________________
 Gov’t officials were skilled, efficient, and well paid
– ____________________________________________________________
– The military was well trained and its weapons and armor were well
designed
– Powerful navy equipped with a chemical weapon, Greek Fire (a liquid that
burst into flames when sprayed on enemy sips)
– ____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
– Imperial tax polices raised huge government revenues used to pay military
and gov’t salaries and construct public buildings
The Christian Church


Name:___________________________
World History: Byzantine Empire and Russia
Notes Packet Ch. 10
– The pope was the most powerful leader of the Christian Church in the
West
 Byzantines did not recognize the authority of the pope and saw the
patriarch of Constantinople as the most powerful church leader
– Iconoclast Controversy
 Western Christians and Eastern (Byzantine) Christians disagreed
over the use of icons (holy picture of the Jesus, Virgin Mary, or the
saints)
– ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
 In 726 AD, Emperor Leo III ordered the destruction of all icons
 In 787 AD, the pope declared the destroying of icons heresy (going
against the beliefs of the church) and threatened iconoclasts with
excommunication (removing someone as a church member)
 In 1054 AD, the issues finally burst and the Christian Church Split
in two
– ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
– The church in the East became the Eastern Orthodox
Church
– Although the two remain divided, icons are now a part of
the _______________ __________________ __________
Byzantine Culture
– Byzantine scholars passed on to future generations the learnings of ancient
Greece, Rome, and the East
– ____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
– Art
 Mosaic, a picture or design made from small pieces of enamel,
glass, or stone
 ______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
– Architecture
 The Hagia Sophia, a church constructed by the Byzantines in
Constantinople in 537 AD
– A huge dome (180 feet high and 108 feet wide) sits on top
of the church
The Decline of the Empire
– The empire weakened after Justinian died
 ______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________


Name:___________________________
World History: Byzantine Empire and Russia
Notes Packet Ch. 10
1096 – 1099 AD, a western European empire fought with the
empire to regain much of its lost land
– However, that same army turned on the Byzantines and
sacked Constantinople
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Section: 10.2 The Rise of Russia


The Setting and People
– Large plain that extends from the Carpathian Mountains (Europe) to the
Ural Mountains (in Asia)
 South of the major plain is a section that is grassy and mostly
treeless (steppe) has black, fertile soil ideal for agriculture
– ____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
– Slavs settled in eastern Russia in the 400s AD
– Vikings from Scandinavia in the 800s AD invaded Eastern Europe and
Russia creating water-going trade routes
Kievan Russia
– ____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
 The Rus people soon conquered the city of Kiev, which became
the capital of Kievan Russia in 879 AD
 Kievan Russia became a trading partner of the Byzantine
Empire
– Government
 ______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
 Veche (town meeting) requested by a prince and all heads of
households had to attend to discuss important matters (war and
other emergencies)
 Yaroslav I or Yaroslav the Wise ruled Kievan Russia
 He built churches, introduced a law code (Pravda Russkia),
which used tribal laws and traditions
– Religion
 Vladimir I, converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity in 988 AD
to marry the sister of the Byzantine Emperor and then ordered all
Kievans to convert with him
 ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
–
Name:___________________________
World History: Byzantine Empire and Russia
Notes Packet Ch. 10
 The church became a more and more dominate force in Kievan
Russia
 Many Kievan mosaics, frescoes, and icons portrayed a deep and
thoughtful spirituality
 These art forms helped viewers to reflect on the meaning of
religious ideas and values
Economy
 Two major agricultural regions
– ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
 However, the growing season is short (long winters)
forcing farmers to work long hours to grow crops
– The steppe itself has a milder climate and a longer growing
season that made farm work easier
 Trade especially between Kievan Russia and the Byzantine Empire
made Russia strong & powerful by the early 1000s AD
 Peasants lived in small villages in the country and produced the
crops that fed Kievan Russia
 ______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Section 10.3: Russia & the Mongols

Attack on Kiev
– Infighting between territorial princes aides in a decline in Kievan Russia
 ______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
– New invaders from Asia, the Mongols invade Kievan Russia and conquer
and destroy Kiev in 1240 AD
 ______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
– Kievan Russia under the Mongols
 The Mongols taxed the region heavily, taxes could be paid for in
money or in goods, or peasants could pay the Mongol overlords
with their labor
 The Mongols built roads & and improved communication methods
 ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
– Kievan Russia and its neighbors
 In the 1300s AD, Poland and Lithuania took land from Kievan
Russia


Name:___________________________
World History: Byzantine Empire and Russia
Notes Packet Ch. 10
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
The Rise of Moscow
– In the early 1300s AD, Moscow (Muscovy) became a major Russian
principality
 ______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
 The Leader of the Orthodox Church in Russia moves to
Moscow increasing its influence
– Ivan III (Ivan the Great) ruled Moscow from 1462 to 1505 AD
 ______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
 Ivan III gained Russia more territory through conquest and
ruled with absolute authority
– Ivan the Terrible
 ______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
 Ivan IV takes the title of czar (caesar) as he sees his kingdom as
the heir to the Roman and Byzantine Empire
 ______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
 Ivan arrested boyars and gave their land to his supporters
 Executed boyars he saw as personal enemies
 ______________________________________________________
 His cruelty, propensity for violence, & unpredictable temper
earned him the nickname Ivan the Terrible
–
The growth of the church
 ______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
– By 1500 AD the church was a major Russian landowner
 ______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
– In 1589 AD, Moscow’s church leader was named patriarch
of the church in Russia
– ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
 Domed churches were built & filled with beautiful artwork
–
Name:___________________________
World History: Byzantine Empire and Russia
Notes Packet Ch. 10
The churches were meant to inspire awe, religious wonder,
& a mystical feeling of spirituality among worshippers