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Chapter 3
Muscular Fitness
Dawn helped a friend move in and was tight and sore the
next day. Her friend, who weight trains (has a decent
tone but is not bulky) was not.
What are the benefits of strength training?
How often should I strength train?
How many reps/sets should I do?
If I gain muscle will I lose flexibility?
Should I St Tr if I don’t want to be big/bulky looking?
Muscles move the body and enable it to exert
force because they move the skeleton
Str Tr is part of a complete program
The 4 basic Tr principles apply (OSIR)
The 4 components of a program apply
Need to know superficial anatomy chart (57)
Be familiar w/ St Tr exercises (58-67) and
Flexibility exercises (73-78)
Muscular Strength: (ex lineman): ability of a
muscle to produce force
* largely determined by how much muscle a person
has, the distribution of muscle fibers, training, and
the CNS. Measured with 1RM.
Muscular Endurance: (CC runner): A muscle’s
ability to produce force over and over again.
* Muscular endurance vs CR endurance?
* ME + CR End = Endurance
* runner’s legs feel good but lose their wind
Power: (ex linebacker): amount of work performed
in a given amount of time; produce force quickly
* Force x Speed = Power
* Plyometrics attempts to increase power. Usually
involves jumping (bands), hopping, bounding
mov’ts for the lower body and push-offs, catching
and throwing weighted objects for the upperbody.
* What is the R(x) b/w power and strength?
Stronger people usually produce more force
II. Basic Physiological effects of weight training
1. Movement occurs when muscles contract and pull
a tendon, which in turn pulls a bone.
2. Muscles consist of individual cells called muscle
fibers, which are made of myofibrils.
3. Weight tr increases muscle strength by increasing
the size of muscle fibers and improving the
body’s ability to call on motor units to exert force.
* The processof making larger existing fibers is
* The process of increasing muscle size by
raising the number of muscle cells is called?
4. Weight training increases the size and strength of
both fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle fibers.
* Predominantly genetically determined
Slow twitch (red): great aerobic potential
(fatigue resistant), slow speed of contraction;
They require Ox for energy (aerobic) and are
used in end activities (jogging)
Fast twitch (white): contract more rapidly and
forcefully but fatigue more quickly. Strength and
power activities such as sprinting tend to use
fast-twitch fibers. They rely more on anaerobic
* To activate, activity must be intense/powerful.
5. Muscles contain a mixture of slow-twitch and
fast twitch fibers; the type fiber recruited depends
on the work being done.
* The distribution of fibers does not affect health
but it does affect P.
* Does Tr significantly alter the distribution?
6. CNS naturally protects the body by inhibiting
maximal force production (keep muscles from
tearing); emergency situation or regular training
over time may decrease this.
III. Benefits of Strength Training
1. Improved performance of physical activities
* a basic component of a complete program
2. Injury prevention
Stronger muscles mean better body alignment
and mechanics (posture); less chance of LBP;
stronger cartilage cells, tendons, and ligaments
3. Improved body comp and Metabolic F(x)
Muscular str/end exe increases/maintains fat free
mass + depletes fat tissue (incr metabolism).
* Inc in resting metabolism: amt of energy an
indiv requires during resting conditions to
sustain proper body function.
* dual edged caloric sword: burn calories to
become stronger and burn more calories at rest
because you have more muscle!
* Increases sensitivity to insulin
4. Enhanced self-image
Body becomes noticeably stronger and toned
5. Improved muscle and bone health w/ aging
* After 30, people begin to lose muscle mass
* Aging and inactivity can cause motor nerves to
disconnect from the portion of the muscle they
control--become slower
* Lower risk of bone loss and prevent falls
IV. Applying the 4 Principles to Str training:
1.Overload: to increase strength you must tax
muscles beyond their accustomed loads
* Incremental increases in tension w/in muscles to
increase strength and induce hypertrophy.
2. Specificity: Your body responds very specifically
to exercise. Only the fibers activated during
training will be affected.
* Bench (specifically hit what areas? generally hit?
don’t incr what areas?)
* Does this mean to get a “six pack” or “buns of
steel” I need to do abd and glutes exercises every
3. Individuality: evaluate fitness level and ex goals
on a personal level…don’t compare
* Remember: unique genetics, H(x) of ex/fitness,
response to ex, and motivation determine specific
range. But….everyone can benefit from St Tr
4. Reversibility: Results of any training program
are not permanent unless you continue
overloading/training muscles
* Maintenance vs Dropping out
* Subtle changes begin in CR (2 days) and
Muskuloskeletal (3 days)
* Strength and fitness will decrease over
time: muscles gradual atrophy
V. Types of Muscle Action:
2 Types of muscle action:
1. Isometric: Applying force without movement;
muscles stay the same length, they don’t contract
but they do exert force.
* Pushing against a wall or leg lifts
* They develop strength only at a specific point in
the joint ROM
2. Isotonic (dynamic): Applying force with mov’t;
muscles lengthen and exert force.
Two movements occur during an Isotonic rep
Eccentric: muscle applies force as it lengthens
* “negatives”: during a bicep curl
Concentric: muscle applies force as it shortens
* “squeeze it” / tricep push down
VI. Building Strength and Endurance
A. Weightlifting terms:
1. Resistance: amount of weight that is lifted
(typically a measure of Intensity)
2. Repetition: one complete movement
3. Set: # of reps followed by a rest period
B. Several factors affect your training
How much muscle a person has, the dist of
muscle fibers (genetics), training, and the CNS.
Types of routines
Apply “FITT” components (Fr,In,Du,Mo);
Exact routine is less important than wise training
principles (regardless of what FLEX, MUSCLE
and FITNESS, and SHAPE say).
1. Full body routine: 8-10 ex, 8-12 reps, 1-3 sets,
2-3 x’s a week; day off b/w workouts,
2. Strength/ bodybuilding; 3 sets of 6-10 reps
per exercise, 4 days per week typically split
body parts, more time/energy consuming, incr
risk of inj
%of 1RM
St gains
M Endurance <70%
1-5+ 2-5min
1-6 30sec-2min
1-3 20-30sec
* Book advocates for 8-12 why?
* Soreness: damage to older muscle fibers;
decreases over time; ease into it; tortoise
* DOMS (delayed onset muscle soreness)
inflammatory response that causes swelling
around old fibers; not harmful; dissipates
C. Training Techniques: numerous
1. Vary order of lifts: squat before leg ext; or
leg ext before squat….what happens?
2. Isolate the muscles: triceps pushdowns versus
close grip bench
3. Split your routine: more experienced
exercisers/ more time (4th day): rest
* depends on goals/time availability
* Is it advisable to train 6-7 x’s a week?
4. Use a partner: a spot on concentric mov’t, incr
DOMS/chance for inj
* What is a good spot?
5. Periodization: planned progression of
workouts over time (cycles). Alter the
resistance, reps, sets etc;
* slightly changes the stress on
muscles; dec the chance of injury
D. Measures of Muscular Str/End
1. 1 RM: A measure of Muscular Str
* The heaviest weight you can successfully lift
with proper form.
* Why do you need to know?
* Help determine 12 RM
2. 12 RM: A measure of Muscular End
* trial and error over time; it changes;
* order of exercise affect it;
* be intuitive;
E. Progression: When will I see results
As a beginner you will see changes in strength
rapidly. This increase is the result of muscle
learning: the increased ability of the CNS to
recruit muscle fibers to exert force.
Actual changes in muscle size usually begin
after about 6-8 weeks of training. Three factors
affect rate of progress:
1. Genetics: varying ranges
2. Starting point: beginners experience faster
rate of change. Dealing w/ plateaus: vary
training techniques/components
3. Level of commitment of time and energy. Not
too much (overtraining)
If I train will I look more masculine?
Not unless you are a man or are taking anabolic
steroids. Men are generally stronger than women
b/c they have larger bodies and larger muscles.
M are typically more powerful because we have
6-10 x’s higher levels of androgens (naturally
occurring male hormones) and our nervous
system can activate our muscles faster.
F. Cross Training:
doing multiple types of training (bike, str train,
1. Reduce the risk of overuse/injury
2. Reduce boredom
3. Can you crosstrain w/in weight training?
VII. Strength Exercises:
* know the superficial anatomy chart on 57
* be familiar with the exercises 58-67
VIII. Flexibility:
The ability of a specific joint to move freely through
its full range of motion.
* joint specific; can vary from side to side and joint
to joint
Becoming more flexible typically entails an:
* increase in the normal length of a muscle;
and/or * reducing the tension in the muscle
A. Types of flexibility
1. Passive flexibility: range of motion you
can attain when someone pushes or pulls
on you (Athletic Trainers, like a spot)
2. Active flexibility: range of motion you
can achieve by actively contracting
your muscles on your own
B. Benefits of flexibility:
* some degree of flexibility is necessary. Ever
have a stiff neck or sprained ankle
* maintain good joint mobility. Without
it body starts to compensate = injury
* increase resistance to muscle injury + soreness
* posture/alignment
* appearance and self-image
* develop + maintain motor skills
C. Factors that affect flexibility
1. Body temp: higher...more flexible
* during CD: plastic, long + slow
2. Adipose tissue...fat restricts mov’t
3. Gender..girls (more) vs boys (less);
the difference lessens over time
4. Age: peaks during middle teens;
slight decline thereafter….lifestyle
5. Inflexibility..sedentary living + lack of ex
6. Genetics: a range
7. Structure of a joint; bone articulation
8. Ligaments: attach bone to bone, provide
support, prevent unwanted mov’t (ACL),
provide joint stability
* don’t want to increase flexibility by
decreasing joint stability so you increase
flexibility mainly through muscles and
connective tissue.
* Does having large muscles decrease
D. Types of stretching
1. Static Stretch: either active or passive, longer
(up to 30 sec) slow, steady
* More likely to result in Plastic elongation:
permanent lengthening of soft tissue (capsules,
tendons, muscles)
2. Ballistic Stretch: dynamic movements;
bouncing to stretch a particular muscle.
Stimulates receptors in a muscle
(muscle spindles) which respond by
contracting the muscle to prevent
* More likely to result in Elastic
elongation: temporary lengthening of soft
tissues (muscles, tendons, muscles)
IX. Stretching Exercises
* benefits of Str after versus before exercise
* in a time crunch stretch specific areas
* know the superficial anatomy chart on 57
* be familiar with the exercises 73-78