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Transcript
Midterm
Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
1. Which of the following is NOT one of the eight most common elements in Earth’s continental
crust?
a. carbon
c. oxygen
b. silicon
d. aluminum
2. Atoms containing the same numbers of protons and different numbers of neutrons are ____.
a. isotopes
c. neutrons
b. ions
d. compounds
3. The mass number of an atom is obtained by totaling the number of ____.
a. electrons and protons
c. protons and neutrons
b. electrons and neutrons
d. neutrons and isotopes
4. What type of chemical bond forms between positive and negative ions?
a. covalent
c. ionic
b. metallic
d. isotopic
5. Compounds with high melting points have ____.
a. covalent bonds
c. ionic bonds
b. metallic bonds
d. no chemical bonds
6. What is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with an orderly crystalline structure and a definite
chemical composition?
a. a mineral
c. an isotope
b. an element
d. a compound
7. A mineral that contains carbon, oxygen, and the metallic element magnesium would be classified
as a(n) ____.
a. silicate
c. carbonate
b. oxide
d. sulfate
8. All minerals in the sulfate and sulfide groups contain what element?
a. silicon
c. oxygen
b. sulfur
d. carbon
9. The most common mineral group in Earth’s crust is the ____.
a. oxides
c. sulfides
b. carbonates
d. silicates
10. The appearance or quality of light reflected from the surface of a mineral is called ____.
a. streak
c. cleavage
b. color
d. luster
11. The color of the powdered form of a mineral is called ____.
a. cleavage
c. luster
b. streak
d. fracture
12. What is the uneven breakage of a mineral called?
a. fracture
c. crystal form
b. cleavage
d. hardness
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
13. What is the density of a mineral with a mass of 41.2 g and a volume of 8.2 cm ?
a. 337.8 g/cm
c. 5.02 g/cm
b. 49.4 g/cm
d. 0.19 g/cm
14. What determines the properties of a mineral?
a. size and shape
c. composition and structure
b. composition and age
d. structure and size
15. What is a naturally occurring, solid mass of mineral or mineral-like matter?
a. a rock
c. lava
b. a mineral
d. a fossil
16. Which of the following is NOT one of the three types of rock?
a. igneous
c. sedimentary
b. magma
d. metamorphic
17. If granite undergoes high temperatures and high pressures at depth within Earth, what type of rock
will be formed? Assume that the granite does not melt.
a. a sedimentary rock
c. magma
b. a metamorphic rock
d. an igneous rock
18. What type of rocks are formed by processes powered by the sun?
a. metamorphic rocks
b. sedimentary rocks
c. igneous rocks
d. No rocks are formed by energy from the sun.
19. When large masses of magma solidify far below Earth’s surface, they form igneous rocks that have
a ____.
a. glassy texture
c. fine-grained texture
b. clastic texture
d. coarse-grained texture
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
20. As the rate of cooling of igneous rocks increases, the size of the crystals that form ____.
a. decreases
c. is not affected
b. increases
d. cannot be determined
21. Which of the following represents the correct order of the processes involved in sedimentary rock
formation?
a. erosion, weathering, compaction, cementation, deposition
b. compaction, cementation, deposition, weathering, erosion
c. deposition, cementation, compaction, erosion, weathering
d. weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction, cementation
22. Which of the following is a use for fossils found in sedimentary rocks?
a. interpreting past environments
b. indicating when the rock formed
c. matching rocks of the same age found in different places
d. all of the above
23. Fossils are only found in ____.
a. intrusive igneous rocks
c. sedimentary rocks
b. foliated metamorphic rocks
d. nonfoliated metamorphic rocks
24. In which of the following settings would a metamorphic rock most likely form?
a. an ocean floor
c. 8 kilometers below Earth’s surface
b. a desert
d. on the slopes of an active volcano
25. The primary agent of contact metamorphism is ____.
a. flowing water
c. extreme pressure
b. heat
d. weathering
26. Which of the following is NOT an agent of metamorphism?
a. heat
c. pressure
b. running water
d. a hydrothermal solution
27. A foliated metamorphic rock forms when crystals ____.
a. combine and form visible bands
b. combine but do not form visible bands
c. become less compact
d. align themselves parallel to the direction of the forces acting on them
28. An earthquake’s epicenter is ____.
a. the place on the surface directly above the focus
b. a spot halfway between the focus and the surface
c. the spot below the focus
d. any spot along the nearest fault
29. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the
____.
a. epicenter
c. fault
b. focus
d. seismic center
30. Earthquakes are usually associated with ____.
a. violent weather
c. large cities
b. faults
d. the east coast of North America
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
31. Which of the following causes earthquakes?
a. elastic rebound
c. release of heat
b. Richter scale
d. frictional heating
32. The hypothesis that explains the release of energy during an earthquake is called the ____.
a. Richter hypothesis
c. vibration hypothesis
b. moment magnitude hypothesis
d. elastic rebound hypothesis
33. The adjustments of materials that follow a major earthquake often generate smaller earthquakes
called ____.
a. foreshocks
c. aftershocks
b. surface waves
d. body waves
34. Major earthquakes are sometimes preceded by smaller earthquakes called ____.
a. aftershocks
c. surface waves
b. focus shocks
d. foreshocks
35. Which seismic waves travel most rapidly?
a. P waves
c. surface waves
b. S waves
d. tsunamis
36. Which one of the following statements is true about P waves?
a. They travel only through solids.
b. They travel faster than S waves.
c. They are the most destructive type of seismic wave.
d. They cannot be recorded on a seismograph.
37. A seismogram shows that P waves travel ____.
a. at the same speed as surface waves
b. more slowly than S waves
c. at the same speed as S waves
d. faster than S waves
38. Overall, which seismic waves are the most destructive?
a. P waves
c. compression waves
b. S waves
d. surface waves
39. What instrument records earthquake waves?
a. seismogram
c. Richter scale
b. seismograph
d. barometer
40. The amount of shaking produced by an earthquake at a given location is called the ____.
a. intensity
c. epicenter
b. magnitude
d. Richter magnitude
41. Violent shaking from an earthquake can cause soil and rock on slopes to fail and cause a ____.
a. fault
c. tsunami
b. landslide
d. sinkhole
42. Earth’s thin, rocky outer layer is its ____.
a. core
c. outer core
b. mantle
d. crust
43. Through which Earth layer are S waves NOT transmitted?
____
44.
____
45.
____
46.
____
47.
____
48.
____
49.
____
50.
____
51.
____
52.
____
53.
____
54.
a. continental crust
c. inner core
b. ocean crust
d. outer core
What hypothesis states that the continents were once joined to form a single supercontinent?
a. plate tectonics
c. continental drift
b. seafloor spreading
d. paleomagnetism
What was the main reason Wegener’s continental drift hypothesis was rejected?
a. He was not well liked by other scientists.
b. He could not provide a mechanism for the movement of the continents.
c. He could provide only illogical explanations for the movement of the continents.
d. His evidence was incorrect.
What kind of plate boundary occurs where two plates grind past each other without destroying or
producing lithosphere?
a. divergent boundary
c. transitional boundary
b. convergent boundary
d. transform fault boundary
A divergent boundary at two oceanic plates can result in a ____.
a. rift valley
c. continental volcanic arc
b. volcanic island arc
d. subduction zone
Which of the following does NOT occur at a subduction zone?
a. The leading edges of both plates are bent upward.
b. Oceanic crust is pushed down into the mantle.
c. A continental plate moves over an oceanic plate.
d. One oceanic plate moves beneath another oceanic plate.
Oceanic lithosphere is destroyed at ____.
a. transform fault boundaries
c. ocean ridges
b. divergent boundaries
d. convergent boundaries
Why are subduction zones not commonly found at convergent continental-continental boundaries?
a. Continental lithosphere is too buoyant to be forced down into the mantle.
b. Subduction zones are never found at convergent boundaries.
c. Oceanic lithosphere is too buoyant to be forced down into the mantle.
d. Continental lithosphere is too dense to be forced down into the mantle.
At a transform fault boundary, ____.
a. new oceanic crust is formed
b. oceanic lithosphere is destroyed
c. lithosphere is neither destroyed nor produced
d. new continental crust is formed
Where are most transform faults found?
a. in California
b. joining two segments of a mid-ocean ridge
c. joining two segments of a subduction zone
d. in areas where two continents have collided
Which of the following was unknown to the ancient Greeks?
a. Earth
c. Venus
b. Mars
d. Uranus
The geocentric model of the universe stated that ____.
a. Earth revolved around the celestial sphere
____
55.
____
56.
____
57.
____
58.
____
59.
____
60.
____
61.
____
62.
____
63.
____
64.
____
65.
____
66.
____
67.
b. the sun was the center of the universe
c. Earth was a “wanderer”
d. Earth was the center of the universe
The true shape of planetary orbits was discovered by ____.
a. Newton
c. Brahe
b. Galileo
d. Kepler
Earth is closest to the sun at a point called ____.
a. perihelion
c. apogee
b. aphelion
d. precession
Earth’s axis slowly but continuously points in different directions, a movement known as ____.
a. retrograde motion
c. rotation
b. revolution
d. precession
One of the planets known to have rings is ____.
a. Venus
c. Uranus
b. Mars
d. Pluto
Which of the following is NOT a terrestrial planet?
a. Mercury
c. Mars
b. Earth
d. Jupiter
The Jovian planets contain a large percentage of the gases ____.
a. nitrogen and argon
c. oxygen and nitrogen
b. hydrogen and helium
d. hydrogen and oxygen
Which planet shows evidence of water erosion?
a. Mars
c. Jupiter
b. Venus
d. Mercury
Which of the following is NOT a form of electromagnetic radiation?
a. radio waves
c. gamma rays
b. gravity
d. visible light
Which color has the longest wavelength?
a. red
c. green
b. blue
d. orange
What does a prism do?
a. combines the colors of visible light into white light
b. separates sunlight into ultraviolet and infrared radiation
c. separates visible light into several colors
d. changes the wavelength of electromagnetic waves
Large Doppler shifts indicate ____.
a. low speeds
c. low temperatures
b. high speeds
d. high temperatures
Stars of which color have the highest surface temperature?
a. red
c. yellow
b. orange
d. blue
Stars of which color have the coolest surface temperature?
a. red
c. yellow
b. orange
d. blue
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
68. A light-year is approximately ____.
a. 9.5 trillion kilometers
c. 150 million kilometers
b. 95 trillion kilometers
d. 150 billion kilometers
69. Which main-sequence stars are the least massive?
a. red
c. yellow
b. orange
d. blue
70. In the Milky Way, the most abundant gas in emission nebulae is ____.
a. helium
c. argon
b. hydrogen
d. nitrogen
71. All stars, regardless of size, eventually ____.
a. turn into black dwarfs
c. run out of fuel and collapse
b. explode
d. become black holes
72. The sun is a ____.
a. black hole
c. main-sequence star
b. black dwarf
d. red giant
73. Which of the following is NOT one of the main areas of Earth science?
a. geology
c. astrology
b. oceanography
d. astronomy
74. What is the study of the atmosphere and the processes that produce weather and climate?
a. oceanography
c. meteorology
b. geology
d. astronomy
75. Earth’s four major spheres are the ____.
a. hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere
b. hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere
c. hydrosphere, asthenosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere
d. hydrosphere, geosphere, lithosphere, and asthenosphere
76. The crust and uppermost mantle make up the rigid outer layer of Earth called the ____.
a. geosphere
c. lithosphere
b. asthenosphere
d. lower mantle
77. The theory of plate tectonics helps scientists explain ____.
a. how ocean currents move over Earth’s surface
b. why hurricanes occur
c. how earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur
d. why Earth’s core is less dense than the mantle
78. On a topographic map, contour lines that form a circle indicate a(n) ____.
a. lake
c. hill
b. ocean
d. depression
79. A map with a scale of 1:24,000 means that ____.
a. one unit on the map is equal to 24,000 units on the ground
b. one unit on the ground is equal to 24,000 units on the map
c. the contour interval is 24,000 feet
d. the contour interval changes every 24,000 feet
Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.
80. The smallest part of an element that still retains the element’s properties is a(n)
____________________.
81. A(n) ____________________ is an electrically neutral subatomic particle found in the nucleus of
an atom.
82. A(n) ____________________ is a solid mass of mineral or mineral-like matter that occurs
naturally.
83. In an undisturbed sequence of sedimentary rocks, the oldest rocks would be at the
____________________ of the sequence.
84. The location on Earth’s surface above the point where an earthquake starts is the
____________________.
85. Movements that follow a major earthquake often produce smaller earthquakes called
____________________.
86. A subduction zone occurs when one ____________________ plate is forced beneath a second
plate.
87. Plumes of molten rock originating deep within the mantle are known as ____________________.
88. ____________________ is the planet that cannot be classified as either a terrestrial or a Jovian
planet.
89. A cloud of dust and gas in space is called a(n) ____________________.
90. The speed of light is ____________________ kilometers per second.
91. An emission spectrum is produced by a(n) ____________________ gas under
____________________ pressure.
92. The most dense stars known to exist are called ____________________.
93. The Milky Way is classified as a(n) ____________________ galaxy.
94. In addition to size and shape, one of the major differences among galaxies is the
____________________ of their stars.
95. The ____________________, which occurred in an instant, marks the beginning of the universe.
96. The science of ____________________ is traditionally divided into two parts: physical and
historical.
97. The ____________________ hypothesis suggests that our solar system evolved from a huge
rotating cloud of dust and gas.
98. Earth’s weather and ocean circulation are powered by energy from the
____________________.
Short Answer
99. What is a compound?
100. What are the four major processes by which minerals form?
Midterm
Answer Section
MULTIPLE CHOICE
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37.
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A
A
C
C
C
A
C
B
D
D
B
A
C
C
A
B
B
B
D
A
D
D
C
C
B
B
A
A
B
B
A
D
C
D
A
B
D
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L1
L1
L2
L1
L2
L1
L2
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L2
L2
L1
L1
L2
L2
L1
L2
L2
L1
L1
L2
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L2
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L2
OBJ:
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OBJ:
2.1
2.3
2.3
2.5
2.5
2.6
2.8
2.9
2.9
2.11
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.6
3.6
3.8
3.10
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.2
8.2
8.3
8.3
8.4
8.4
8.4
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
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STO:
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STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.03
2.03
2.03
2.03
2.03
2.03
2.03
2.03, 3.01
2.03, 3.01
2.03
2.03
2.03
2.03
2.04
2.04
STO: 2.04
STO: 2.04
STO: 2.04
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
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D
B
A
B
D
D
C
B
D
A
A
D
A
C
B
D
D
D
A
D
C
D
B
A
B
A
C
B
D
A
A
A
B
C
C
C
C
A
C
C
C
A
DIF:
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DIF:
L2
L1
L1
L2
L1
L2
L1
L1
L1
L1
L2
L2
L2
L1
L2
L2
L2
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L2
L1
L1
L1
L2
L2
L1
L2
L1
L1
L2
L2
L1
L1
L1
L1
L2
L1
L1
L2
OBJ:
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8.4
8.6
8.6
8.8
8.10
8.10
9.1
9.3
9.6
9.6
9.8
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.10
22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.4
23.1
23.1
23.2
23.3
24.1
24.1
24.1
24.3
25.1
25.1
25.2
25.4
25.5
25.6
25.7
1.1
1.1
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.8
1.8
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
2.04
2.04
2.04
2.03
2.03
2.04
2.02
2.02
2.03
2.03
2.03
2.03
2.03
2.03
2.03
6.01
6.01
6.02
6.02
6.02
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
4.01
6.04
6.04
6.04
6.04
6.03
6.03
6.03
6.03
6.03
6.03
6.03
3.01, 4.02, 6.02
5.02
4.04, 5.01
2.05
2.02
2.05
2.05
COMPLETION
80. ANS: atom
DIF: L1
81. ANS: neutron
OBJ: 2.1
STO: 2.01
DIF: L1
82. ANS: rock
OBJ: 2.2
STO: 2.01
DIF: L1
83. ANS: bottom
OBJ: 3.1
STO: 2.03
DIF: L2
84. ANS: epicenter
OBJ: 3.10
STO: 2.03
DIF: L1
85. ANS: aftershocks
OBJ: 8.1
STO: 2.04
DIF: L1
86. ANS: oceanic
OBJ: 8.3
DIF: L1
87. ANS: hot spots
OBJ: 9.8
STO: 2.03
DIF: L1
88. ANS: Pluto
OBJ: 9.12
STO: 2.03
DIF: L1
89. ANS: nebula
OBJ: 23.1
DIF: L1
90. ANS: 300,000
OBJ: 23.2
DIF: L1
91. ANS: hot, low
OBJ: 24.1
DIF: L1
92. ANS: black holes
OBJ: 24.2
DIF: L1
93. ANS:
spiral
barred spiral
OBJ: 25.7
STO: 6.03
DIF: L1
94. ANS: age
OBJ: 25.9
DIF: L1
95. ANS: big bang
OBJ: 25.9
STO: 6.03
DIF: L1
96. ANS: geology
OBJ: 25.11
STO: 6.01
DIF: L1
97. ANS: nebular
OBJ: 1.1
STO: 3.01
DIF: L2
98. ANS: sun
OBJ: 1.2
STO: 6.01
DIF:
OBJ: 1.10
STO: 4.02
L1
SHORT ANSWER
99. ANS:
a substance that consists of two or more elements that are chemically combined in specific
proportions
DIF: L1
OBJ: 2.4
STO: 2.01
100. ANS:
crystallization from magma, precipitation, changes in temperature and pressure, and formation
from hydrothermal solutions
DIF:
L1
OBJ: 2.7
STO: 2.01