Genetic polymorphisms and drug interactions modulating
... Time-effect curves were generated by arithmetic means of
effect values at each sample time. Area under the drug effecttime curves (AUEC) were calculated with the trapezoidal
The statistical software package SPSS for Windows (version
15, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for the statistical pharmaco ...
Amiodarone Inhibits the Na -K Pump in Rabbit Cardiac Myocytes
... Treatment protocols. Male New Zealand White rabbits, weighing 2.5 to 3.0 kg, were used in the study. Amiodarone was supplied
in its hydrochloride powder form. In experiments examining the
effects of chronic treatment, gelatin capsules containing appropriate
quantities of amiodarone were made up at t ...
Prescribing Framework for Phenelzine (MAOI) in the treatment of
... hallucinations and paranoid delusions. If possible MAOIs should be withdrawn slowly.
MAOIs inhibit monoamine oxidase, thereby causing an accumulation of amine neurotransmitters. The
metabolism of some amine drugs such as indirect-acting sympathomimetics (present in many cough
and decongestant prepar ...
Effect of Subconjunctivally Injected, Liposome
... All continuous variables were expressed as the mean ⫾ SD. The
differences in the amount of size decreases of subconjunctival hemorrhages between groups were tested with repeated-measures ANOVA.
The baseline sizes and mean elapsed times for the complete resorption
of subconjunctival hemorrhages were ...
Stability and aerosolization of pressurized metered dose inhalers
... The ability of nanoparticles to disperse and form a physically
stable suspension in propellant used is one of the major properties related to dose reproducibility in a suspension-type pMDI
(Byron, 1992). Unstable suspensions can result in uncontrolled
emitted dose and size characteristics, which lea ...
Pharmacogenetic Determinants of Codeine Induction by Rifampin
... Inter- and intraphenotypic comparisons were carried out by twoway ANOVA with repeated measurements, followed if appropriate
by paired or unpaired Student’s t test or nonparametric test (Wilcoxon signed rank test), as indicated. Linear and Spearman correlation tests were used to evaluate the relation ...
evaluation for flushing, safety and tolerability of niacin
... (subjects)-DRQS and a short form of the Addiction
Research Inventory (ARCI), at completion, subjects
completed the Treatment Enjoyment Assessment
Questionnaire. The maximum scale response to the
question “Do you dislike the drug effect you are feeling
now?” or Disliking Score in the DRQS is the prim ...
Placebo Effects in Guidelines, Practice, and Patient Choice:
... For much of the modern era of medicine, the placebo has been largely
viewed as a useful control in clinical trials. However, clinical research
has demonstrated that placebo has powerful effects of its own. Despite
this mounting evidence, providers rarely consider placebo effects in
clinical manageme ...
Pharmaceutical Development Case Study: “ACE Tablets”
The last decade has seen a significant transformation in pharmaceutical quality regulation
from an empirical process to a more science and risk based approach. This case study is
an extremely important document for helping guide FDA and the industry toward the
“desired state” of pharmaceu ...
... activities of the aqueous extract of the leaves have been investigated on
different isolated tissue preparations in our laboratory (3). Here, the results
of the effects of the aqueous extract on neuromuscular transmission using
the isolated toad rectus abdominis and rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm
Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance Achillea millefolium L
... The elevated plus maze, marble-burying, and open-field data were analyzed by oneway (treatment) analysis of variance (ANOVA) for independent samples followed by
the Duncan test, with the exception of the total number of arm entries in the elevated
plus maze and number of fecal boluses in the open-fi ...
Therapeutic and pharmacological potential of Foeniculum vulgare Mill
... mg of ethanol and watery extracts respectively had the
99.1% and 77.5% of antioxidant activity which was greater
than the alpha-tocopherol (36.1%) antioxidant properties
with the same dose (45).
Of the pharmacological effects of fennel plant, antiinflammatory activity can ...
Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions of Antimicrobial Drugs: A
... extent of severity and clinical relevance. Not only co-medication, but also food and herbal medicine
can interact with antimicrobial drugs and vice versa. The nature of these interactions can be of
pharmacodynamic (PD) and/or pharmacokinetic (PK) origin.
A PD interaction consists of an alteration of ...
Effect of `Mentat` on the pharmacokinetics of single and multiple
... Analysis: Phenytoin concentrations in plasma samples were estimated by HPLC technique8
which was standardized in our laboratory and the intra-assay and inter-assay coefficient of
variation was 3.7% and 4.6% respectively.
Pharmacokinetic Parameters: Peak plasma phenytoin concentration (Cmax) and time ...
(1) - PhUSE Wiki
... This paper attempts to give recommendations for difficult decisions related to the analysis of difficult topics such as
QT interval correction, baseline, and PK/PD analysis. Since there are on-going discussions regarding these topics
the recommendations made here are mainly based on the authors expe ...
... NMDA receptor blockers are drugs with explicit CNS depression effect so that Ketamine is typical drug
in this group. It is a suitable injectable anesthetic in human and animal that has a low intestinal absorption
rate. It's bioavailability in cat with rectal administration is %43.5±61 and in human w ...
Effect of Khat chewing on the bioavailability of ampicillin and
... maximum time taken to reach the peak (TTP, h) following oral administration of the antibiotic at different times
with respect to Khat chewing are shown in Table I. In
comparison with the control, A, the mean PDE%, MPE
and TTP were significantly altered in B, C, D and E (P <
0.05) but not in F, where ...
... The study design, regulatory approvals, and the summary pharmacokinetic parameter results of the PHATISA study have been published
in the past (Hiruy et al., 2015). Clinical and demographic factors were
recorded. Malnutrition was measured using Z scores for height-forage, weight-for-age, and weight- ...
... ‘‘predict,’’ ‘‘project,’’ ‘‘target,’’ ‘‘potential,’’ ‘‘will,’’ ‘‘would,’’ ‘‘could,’’ ‘‘should,’’ ‘‘continue,’’ and similar
expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking
statements contain these identifying words. We may not actually achieve the pla ...
... DMSO inhibits microsomal formation of NAPQI in competitive manner . Therefore, we
hypothesized that experimental model in which microsomal enzymes are induced prior to
APAP administration will be less sensitive to DMSO. However, our results show that model,
in which microsomal enzymes are induce ...
The effect of oral midazolam ... on respiration in normal subjects
... reversed the sedation. It may be argued that the failure of our study to detect a depressant effect on the
HVR is due to intrasubject variability; the coefficient
of variation (COV) of repeated studies being about
20- 30%. Indeed, in our laboratory, the HVR was
repeated three times within the same d ...
In statistics, an effect size is a quantitative measure of the strength of a phenomenon. Examples of effect sizes are the correlation between two variables, the regression coefficient in a regression, the mean difference, or even the risk with which something happens, such as how many people survive after a heart attack for every one person that does not survive. For each type of effect-size, a larger absolute value always indicates a stronger effect. Effect sizes complement statistical hypothesis testing, and play an important role in power analyses, sample size planning, and in meta-analyses. They are the first item (magnitude) in the MAGIC criteria for evaluating the strength of a statistical claim.Especially in meta-analysis, where the purpose is to combine multiple effect-sizes, the standard error of effect-size is of critical importance. The S.E. of effect-size is used to weight effect-sizes when combining studies, so that large studies are considered more important than small studies in the analysis. The S.E. of effect-size is calculated differently for each type of effect-size, but generally only requires knowing the study's sample size (N), or the number of observations in each group (n's).Reporting effect sizes is considered good practice when presenting empirical research findings in many fields. The reporting of effect sizes facilitates the interpretation of the substantive, as opposed to the statistical, significance of a research result.Effect sizes are particularly prominent in social and medical research. Relative and absolute measures of effect size convey different information, and can be used complementarily. A prominent task force in the psychology research community expressed the following recommendation: