Full Text - University of British Columbia
... suggesting that ability may also increase, independent of motivation. It remains unclear
whether this process serves to reduce arousal, or is a component of the searching process
that identifies the source of one’s feeling that something is not right.
Dissonance and the Meaning Maintenance Model
8 How to Maximize Implementation Intention Effects Peter M.
... Attention Attraction During the Pursuit of Unrelated Goals. Will critical
cues even attract attention when they occur during the pursuit of an
unrelated goal? To test this, Wieber and Sassenberg (2006) conducted
two attention disruption studies. In both studies, the disruption of attention through i ...
Beyond Use: Understanding Evaluation`s Influence on Attitudes and
... In this section, we present a framework for developing a better understanding of evaluation
influence. As part of that framework, we classify change processes and outcomes that evaluations can influence in terms of three levels: individual, interpersonal, and collective.2 The
levels indicate the loc ...
... Bálint Forgács, Eugenio Parise, Gergely Csibra, Judit Gervain
Expectation States Theory
... Bales (1970) found, for instance, that groups developed a most talkative member who talked
considerably more than the others in the group. This most talkative person was also the one
addressed most often by the others. The more a person talked, compared to the others, the
more likely he was to be ra ...
How Mimicry Affects Executive and Self
... than did participants who were not (Finkel, Campbell, Brunell,
Dalton, et al., 2006, Experiment 5). The purpose of using mimicry
in that study was to show that inefficiency in so-called highmaintenance interactions occurs outside of conscious awareness.
Nevertheless, that experiment offers a basic p ...
The Pain Was Greater If It Will Happen Again
... We know that people’s flawed memories produce less aversive
expectations, but are their expectations equally kind to their memories? If people consider engaging in another irritating task, how
will that consideration influence how they remember the previous
task? One possibility is that the expectat ...
communication apprehension affects performance
... categorized as having a trait-based apprehension as it is seen across multiple scenarios
and situations. Likewise, if individuals exhibit low levels of CA, they are seen as not
having trait-based apprehension, but these individuals, though they do not have a traitbased apprehension, may experience m ...
unit 14 study guide
... b. attribution theory
c. social exchange theory
d. cognitive dissonance theory
e. two-factor theory
22. Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful for understanding
a. the mere exposure effect.
b. group polarization.
c. the fundamental attribution error.
d. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
e. the b ...
Unit 14 Practice Test A - Lewis
... c. complied until ordered to deliver intense levels of shock.
d. complied fully and delivered the highest level of shock.
e. refused to deliver shocks to all participants who expressed doubt about the
____ 34. Social facilitation refers to the tendency to
a. neglect critical thinking bec ...
What have Sport and Music Performance Taught Us about Test
... perfonners may have abandoned their careers by this stage. However, the critical
difference between the timing of anxiety in experienced and less-experienced perfonners
was also demonstrated in the earlier, well known parachute research of Epstein and Fenz
(1965). In this study, the more-experienced ...
2017 Unit 14 Practice Test B - Lewis
... d. adaptive capacities.
e. group polarization.
____ 49. The preservation of innovation best illustrates the survival value of
d. personal space.
e. the chameleon effect.
____ 50. Those who study cultural influences on behavior are most likely to highlight t ...
That`s Interesting - M.S. Davis 1971
... of seemingly diverse social phenomena down to their economic, power, or communicative
components. Other social theorists who have observed that a few seemingly diverse social
phenomena have at least one component in common have achieved less ambitious, but
nonetheless interesting, reductions. Thus S ...
PDF hosted at the Radboud Repository of the Radboud University
... Several studies suggest that task co-representation
effects occur even when the co-actor is invisible (Ruys and
Aarts 2010; Sebanz et al. 2005; Tsai et al. 2008; Vlainic
et al. 2010, but see Welsh et al. 2007 for a contradictory
result). This indicates that knowledge about a co-actor’s
task may be s ...
What, how, why, to whom, with whom? I really
... that they can satisfy their needs by participating in roles
within the organization, is strongly related to job satisfaction
and commitment. Additionally, in a recent longitudinal study
among Finnish healthcare personnel, OBSE turned out to be
one of the most important predictors of work engagement
The Good Subject Motive and the Apprehensive Subject Motive: An
... damaging when it interacts with the total context of one experimental condition in one way and other conditions in other ways (internal validity threat).
He made the point that the confusion which rules in the fields he reviewed
might be just what one would expect if an uncontrolled·artifact were op ...
Instruction-Based Approach- Avoidance Effects
... trials on which a first neutral stimulus is paired with positive pictures and trials on which a second neutral stimulus
is paired with negative pictures. Despite the fact that the
participants never actually saw the stimulus pairings, the
instructions did result in a preference for the first neutral ...
CSCW 2014 - David Coyle
... cold weather. The study was designed to explore the
effects of competition on participants through the use of
leaderboards, badges and pay-for-results financial
incentives. Whereas high performing participants were
clearly motivated by competition, analysis of semistructured interviews with particip ...
Social attitudes modulate automatic imitation
... 1999), only a small number of studies have examined the converse relationship – the
impact of social attitudes on mimicry. Some early research suggested that among
romantic couples there is a correlation between the amount of rapport they feel with
each other and the amount of mimicking that takes p ...
Theory of Attentional and Interpersonal Style vs. Test of Attentional
... putt), or to assess and manipulate your own internal state in some systematic way (e.g., to
mentally check your breathing rate, systematically reduce muscle tension, etc.). You use a
narrow-external focus to actually perform some physical (e.g., hit a ball), or interpersonal (ask a
question or confr ...
Towards a more robust theory
... behavioral effects of the physical presence of another human being or the thought
that another human being is in position to observe. This physical “social presence”
was conceptualized simply as “another person is perceived as present or absent.”
Only in the telecommunication context did this notion ...
Chapter 3: Literature Review
... In many instances, accurate rating seems to be rare. Inaccuracy is most often attributable to
the presence of rater errors such as halo, recency, and leniency errors. Rater errors are errors
in judgment that occur in a systematic manner when an individual observes and evaluates
another. Rater errors ...
Losing our religion - Faculty Directory | Berkeley-Haas
... fundamental attribution error (the tendency for people to be too quick to jump to conclusions
about the personalities of others even when plausible situational explanations for others’ conduct
exist), belief perseverance (the tendency for people to be too slow to adjust their prior
impressions in re ...
Social facilitation is the tendency for people to do better on simple tasks when in the presence of other people. This implies that, whenever people are being watched by others, they will do well on things that they are already good at doing. The idea that social evaluation has an impact on performance sparked interest in the psychological reasons behind this phenomenon, leading to further research surrounding the social facilitation theory and its implications.This theory suggests that the mere or imagined presence of people in social situations creates an atmosphere of evaluation. The Yerkes-Dodson law of social facilitation states that, in this atmosphere, ""the mere presence of other people will enhance the performance in speed and accuracy of well-practiced tasks, but will degrade the performance of less familiar tasks."" For example, a star soccer player may perform better in his game when more people are watching him perform. However, if a person is asked to fix a car's engine during a road race but is not a mechanic, he will not perform as well if he is aware of the presence of others than he would in a situation when he feels less evaluated or pressured, like just trying to fix a car in his garage.Social facilitation has occasionally been attributed to the fact that certain people are more susceptible to social influence, with the argument that person factors can make these people more aware of evaluation. These personality characteristics may cause some people to be more greatly affected by the presence of their observers.The role of social facilitation is important to consider in social situations, because it implies that people's performance does not rely solely on their abilities, but is also impacted by the internal awareness of being evaluated. Performance can be greatly affected by situation factors, thus making it possible to entirely alter the outcome of a situation. This can be very important when considering how anyone will perform under evaluation and how to potentially prepare for those situations. For example, if a professional basketball player practices shooting free throws with fake audience noise in the background, he will not feel as if he is under as much evaluation in a real game situation. This is because the noise-pressured free throws will start to become a simple task rather than a complex task as he practices more. Although he will know that the fake noise is not evaluating him the same way that real crowd would, he is adjusting his awareness of the potential evaluation, and is thus trying to combat any harm that social facilitation could bring to his shooting abilities.