Fine Tuning of Sympathetic Transmitter Release via Ionotropic and
... nerve ending or from a different axon terminal. In the
first situation, the receptor involved is a presynaptic
autoreceptor, whereas in the second situation, the receptor is called a presynaptic heteroreceptor. Although the
functions of presynaptic heteroreceptors were elucidated
first, the detectio ...
Two different but converging messenger pathways to intracellular
... (Galione et al., 1991; Meszaros et al., 1993). cADPR can
elicit cytosolic Ca2+ spiking in pancreatic acinar cells
(Thorn et al., 1994) and cADPR receptors are involved in
the response to a physiological CCK stimulus, since the
cADPR antagonist 8-NH2-cADPR (Walseth and Lee,
1993; Cancela and Petersen ...
Hormones and Signal Transduction III
RAS is a Family of Related Proteins
Each is Monomeric and like the α-subunit of G-Proteins
RAS Proteins Bind Guanine Nucleotides
RAS Swaps GDP for GTP on Activation
RAS Slowly Cleaves GTP to GDP
The immunomodulatory actions of adenosine during systemic
... by systemic inflammation. During murine peritonitis, the
extracellular adenosine concentration increased rapidly as a
consequence of increased formation of adenosine along with
a decrease in degradation of adenosine.20 Also in humans in
vivo, systemic inflammation changes the circulating adenosine
Chapter 16—Probes for Endocytosis, Receptors and Ion Channels
... 16.1 Probes for Following Receptor Binding and Phagocytosis
The plasma membrane defines the inside and outside of the cell. It not only encloses the
cytosol to maintain the intracellular environment but also serves as a formidable barrier to the
extracellular environment. Because cells require input ...
Evolutionarily conserved recognition and innate immunity to fungal
... fungal-derived ␤-glucan), acetylated low density lipoprotein
(acLDL), poly I, fucoidan, and, to a lesser extent, mannan inhibited SCARF1 recognition of C. neoformans (Fig. 3, e and f).
In contrast, addition of dextran, pullulan, or poly C had no effect. These results suggested that binding of C. neo ...
Leukotriene B4 Triggers the In Vitro and In Vivo
... cells, CD8⫹ T cells, and PMN and exert their effects through an
Activated PMN not only secrete antimicrobial peptides/enzymes
and chemokines/cytokines but also bioactive lipids. One important
and well characterized lipid is leukotriene (LT) B4, a tetraunsaturated 20-carbon chain fa ...
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... most closely related to the Xenopus laevis orphan nuclear receptor 1 (ONR1) (Smith et al., 1994), with PXR.2
and ONR1 sharing 70% and 46% amino acid identity in
their DNA-binding domains (DBDs) and LBDs, respectively (Figure 1B). Based upon this degree of homology,
it is unclear at present whether P ...
Neutrophils in the innate immune response
... Neutrophil “priming” was described by McPhail et
al.133 in the early 1980s as the ability of a primary agonist, typically at a sub-stimulatory concentration, to
influence/enhance superoxide production triggered
by a second stimulus. Since that time, many studies
have shown that neutrophils can be pr ...
Full and Partial Agonists of Muscarinic M3 Receptors Reveal Single
... resulting Schild plot had a slope different from unity, perhaps as a consequence of the nonequilibrium conditions of
the assay. ICI-118,551 caused a collapse of the noradrenaline
concentration-response curve in the presence of 100 M
methacholine, with little effect on the pEC50 values where
these c ...
The Sympathetic Division
... explain how they relate to autonomic effects.
– Explain how the ANS controls many target organs
through dual innervation.
– Explain how control is exerted in the absence of dual
Mechanisms of cross-talk between G-protein
... store. Not all studies have addressed the source of Ca2+ for
potentiated signalling, but it is worthy of note that there are
cases in which extracellular Ca2+ is required [3–8]. For example,
the ability of Gα q/11 -coupled neurokinin 1 receptors to potentiate
Ca2+ signalling by Gα i -coupled CXCR1/2 ...
Expression of biologically active mouse ciliary neutrophic factor
... The CNTF receptor (CNTFR) comprises three subunits:
CNTFRa, leukemia inhibitory factor b receptor (LIFRb)
and gp130 [40, 41]. CNTFRa is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) - anchored protein, which can also be found
in a soluble form (sCNTFRa) . The binding of CNTF
to membrane bound or soluble ...
Creation of a Selective Antagonist and Agonist of the Rat VPAC1
... and exocrine secretion (Fahrenkrug, 1993). In addition to a
neurotransmitter function, PACAP has been shown to be a
neurotrophic factor that plays a role during the development
of the brain (Arimura, 1998). These peptides act through
three distinct receptors: the PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 receptors. Th ...
The Cell Adhesion Molecule Neuroplastin
... are cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily
that contain three or two extracellular immunoglobulin
domains, respectively (26), which are derived from alternative
splicing from a single gene. These proteins also contain a single
transmembrane and a short intracellular domain. Both n ...
Plant immune and growth receptors share common signalling
... changing how much it grows. Disease-causing microbes in the immediate environment represent
another potential threat to plants. To detect these microbes, plant cells have proteins called
“pattern recognition receptors” in their surface membranes that sense certain molecules from the
microbes (simila ...
... post-synaptic cell triggering the synthesis and release of 2arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). 2-AG returns to the pre-synaptic cell binding
to and activating CB1 receptors. THC mimics 2-AG action, and is used to
study the ECS retrograde signaling system and its effect on appetite and
mood. A protein from ...
Analgetika kuat, Schunack
... and cloned based on homology with the cDNA.
This receptor is known as the ORL 1 receptor.
Its natural ligand is known alternately as
phasic and tonic activation of gaba receptors - LIRA-Lab
... contain α, β and γ2 subunits (for example, α2β3γ2, α3β3γ2, α4βxγ2, α5β3γ2 and α6βxγ2),
whereas receptors in which the γ2 subunit is replaced by γ1, γ3, or δ are less
abundant. Further variability arises from the fact that individual pentamers might
contain two different α or two different β subunit ...
Molecular Characterization of the Melanin
... effect of MCH on the action of melanocortin in the hypothalamus (Ludwig et al., 1998), and, most recently, the characterization of a MCH knockout mouse displaying reduced body
weight due to hypophagia and an increase in metabolic rate
Leukotriene B4 receptor 2
Leukotriene B4 receptor 2, also known as BLT2, BLT2 receptor, and BLTR2, is a Integral membrane protein that is encoded by the LTB4R2 gene in humans and the Ltbr2 gene in mice.Discovered several years after the leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1), BLT2 receptor binds leukotriene B4 (LTB4) with far lower affinity than the BLT1 receptor does and therefore has been termed the low affinity LTB4 receptor. Sometime after its initial discovery, the BLT2 receptor was shown to bind and become activated by several other arachidonic acid metabolites, one of which, 12-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (12-HHT), has 10- to 100-fold higher affinity for it than does LTB4; 12-HHT fails to bind or activate BLT1 receptors. While BLT2 receptors have some actions similar to BLT1 receptors, they have other actions which clearly oppose those of BLT1 in regulating inflammation and allergic responses; BLT2 receptors also have actions that extend beyond those of BLT1 receptors. Laboratory, animal, and other pre-clinical studies suggest that BLT2 receptors may be involved not only in inflammation and allergy but also in human cancer.