Primary- and Secondary-Like Jaw-Muscle Spindle Afferents Have
... Male Wistar rats (300–350g) were anesthetized initially with
pentobarbital sodium (20 mg/kg ip) supplemented with additional
injections (8 mg/kg iv) every hour to maintain adequate anesthesia. To reduce secretions in the airways and trachea, atropine (1
mg/kg sc) was administered after the induction ...
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... depolarized during opening/protraction. We sought to determine whether there are other followers that receive B21 input
when it is not centrally depolarized. We found one such cell.
Moreover, we found that stimulation of B21 during radula opening/protraction significantly decreases the duration of t ...
Unraveling the Genetics of Distal Hereditary Motor Neuronopathies
... 13 chromosomal loci and seven disease-associated genes have been identified for autosomaldominant, autosomal-recessive, and X-linked recessive distal HMN. Most of the genes involved
encode protein with housekeeping functions, such as RNA processing, translation synthesis,
stress response, apoptosis, ...
INVESTIGATING THE SOPHISTICATION OF LONG-LATENCY UPPER LIMB
... Although this theory can explain how people move in the world, it does not specifically
describe how this control process is implemented by the nervous system. In this thesis,
we propose and explore one physiological implication of this theory. Specifically, we
hypothesize that rapid feedback respon ...
Gait training facilitates central drive to ankle
... to a lesion of the motor cortex or the corticospinal tract
(Bland et al., 2011; Moreau et al., 2012; Petersen et al.,
2013; Willerslev-Olsen et al., 2014a). In healthy children,
improved control of the ankle dorsiﬂexors in the swing
phase of walking parallels maturation of the corticospinal
tract ac ...
The mirror neuron system and its role in learning Master`s thesis by
... actions. It is therefore likely that humans also possess a mirror neuron system. This
system has many connections to other brain areas and is thought to be involved in
action understanding and empathy. Another possibility, which is the main topic of this
thesis, is that it is also involved in certai ...
Motor Resonance Meets Motor Performance - Unitn
... premotor areas were present anterior to Brodmann‘s area 4 and that Brodmann‘s area 6
portion of the cortex is not functionally segregated from area 4 but it constitutes a
unique complex in which proximal and axial movements are represented. A separate
representation of body movements would be found, ...
Cortical Involvement During Sustained Lower Limb Contractions
... completion (Drew et al., 2004). Current techniques utilized to record and measure neural
activity during discrete motor tasks provide valuable information regarding temporal
activity [e.g., electromyography (EMG)] as well as spatial activity (e.g., fMRI) of
motoneurones; however, very little in know ...
The Differential Role of Motor Cortex in Stretch Reflex Modulation
... The motor cortex assumes an increasingly important role in higher mammals relative to that in lower mammals. This is true to such an
extent that the human motor cortex is deeply involved in reflex regulation and it is common to speak of “transcortical reflex loops.” Such
loops appear to add flexibil ...
computational modeling of observational learning - FORTH-ICS
... and monkey primates during action observation and action execution (Raos et al., 2004; Raos et al.,
2007; Kilintari et al., 2010; Evangeliou et al., 2008). Results have identified a common representational
substrate between motor observation and motor execution, suggesting that ther ...
Spasticity after stroke: Physiology, assessment and treatment
... (e.g., degree of stretching) and may be dependent on the
CNS lesion’s location [16, 17]. When the balance between
inhibitory and excitatory fibres is disturbed, it can result in
various aspects of upper limb syndrome, such as hypotonia,
dyskinesia or spasticity. Three lesion sites have been
Update on models of basal ganglia function and dysfunction
... importance of dopamine release at regulating the transmission
at speciﬁc synapses in the striatum are accepted. However,
some of the details of the earlier pathophysiology models of
basal ganglia diseases have fallen by the wayside, most likely
because the anatomical models were too rigidly transfor ...
The Motor System
... remain uncrossed. The
distribution is myotomal
muscles are innervated
by peripheral nerves that
originate from selected
levels of the spinal cord.
maintenance of motor pattern phase relationships in the ventilatory
... the basis of an analysis of the correlation between cycle period
and time delays in the pattern. However, such correlations are
not a sufficient basis on which to conclude that phase remains
constant in a motor pattern (see Discussion). In addition,
Young’s data were obtained from semi-intact prepar ...
Basal Ganglia objectives - NBio401
... -Be able to describe the effect of the substantia pars compacta on the direct
and indirect pathways.
-Be able to explain how, in addition to the pathways affecting limb
movements, there are other loops between the basal ganglia and cerebral
cortex that perform analogous functions for oculomotor, exe ...
Corticomuscular Contributions to the Control of Rhythmic Movement
... The inherent simplicity of human locomotion is deceiving in nature and its complexity becomes
apparent when we observe children as they learn to walk or patients suffering from
neuromuscular disorders. Human movement requires inputs from supraspinal and spinal centers
as well as sensory afferent fee ...
The basal ganglia: from motor commands to the
... planning, at the early stages of execution, had the largest
effects on kinematics. A more recent study extended
these results using a task in which monkeys learned to
reach to each of 4 targets either in a specific sequence or in
random order. Turner and Desmurget  found that
the primary effect ...
Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention
... confidence in her ability to acquire the skills necessary for windsurfing. Beyond the transfer of
balance-related skills, this confidence will likely reduce self-related concerns and cognitions,
allowing her to focus on achieving the task goal and maintaining her balance despite
perturbations from w ...
Assembly and Function of Spinal Circuits for Motor Control
... 1992, Jung & Dasen 2015). A major focus in recent years has been linking the organization and
function of spinal and supraspinal neural networks with specific types of behaviors.
Our current understanding of how motor circuits are assembled derives from classical studies
on development and neuroanat ...
The Basal Ganglia and Motor Control
... have an essential and distinctive role in the
organization (coordination, timing, and sequencing)
of a normal motor output. Finally, the basal ganglia,
as well as the cerebellum, play an important role in
motor learning processes, albeit in different
aspects and phases.
The present account briefly r ...
Chapter 16 - MBFys Home Page
... reticular formation are controlled largely by other motor centers in the cortex
or brainstem. The relevant neurons in the reticular formation initiate adjustments that stabilize posture during ongoing movements.
The way the upper motor neurons of the reticular formation maintain
posture can be appre ...
Muscle memory has been used synonymously with motor learning, which is a form of procedural memory that involves consolidating a specific motor task into memory through repetition. When a movement is repeated over time, a long-term muscle memory is created for that task, eventually allowing it to be performed without conscious effort. This process decreases the need for attention and creates maximum efficiency within the motor and memory systems. Examples of muscle memory are found in many everyday activities that become automatic and improve with practice, such as riding a bicycle, typing on a keyboard, typing in a PIN, playing a musical instrument, or martial arts.