Relativistic Gravity and the Origin of Inertia and Inertial Mass arXiv

... see an explosion and for another not. The Special Theory of Relativity requires that the two objects must be in equilibrium also for an observer moving with a constant velocity in relation to them. • If we want the system of two objects to be in equilibrium for each inertial observer, the gravitatio ...

... see an explosion and for another not. The Special Theory of Relativity requires that the two objects must be in equilibrium also for an observer moving with a constant velocity in relation to them. • If we want the system of two objects to be in equilibrium for each inertial observer, the gravitatio ...

geometrization of electromagnetism in tetrad-spin

... In general relativity, the electromagnetic field and its sources are considered to be on the side of the matter tensor in the field equations, i.e. they act as sources of the gravitational field. In unified field theory, the electromagnetic field obtains the same geometric status as the gravitationa ...

... In general relativity, the electromagnetic field and its sources are considered to be on the side of the matter tensor in the field equations, i.e. they act as sources of the gravitational field. In unified field theory, the electromagnetic field obtains the same geometric status as the gravitationa ...

Higher Unit 1

... North. Draw a small compass to show this. Draw the first vector ensuring it is the correct length to represent the magnitude of the vector, and it is the correct direction. ...

... North. Draw a small compass to show this. Draw the first vector ensuring it is the correct length to represent the magnitude of the vector, and it is the correct direction. ...

Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

... The space-time is not an à priori structure in Special Relativity, we make it up with the help of meter rods and clocks. Note that this procedure is limited to the macroscopic, classical regime, for there is no way to measure the coordinates within an atom. The motion of a point particle is describ ...

... The space-time is not an à priori structure in Special Relativity, we make it up with the help of meter rods and clocks. Note that this procedure is limited to the macroscopic, classical regime, for there is no way to measure the coordinates within an atom. The motion of a point particle is describ ...

Hyperbolic Geometrodynamic Warp Drives

... from which warp drives originate). It is within this chapter where we will investigate the ‘strict’ rules of special relativity and later modify them in accordance to the bizarreness of general relativity. This modification then allows us to discuss the possibility of apparent FTL travel, although i ...

... from which warp drives originate). It is within this chapter where we will investigate the ‘strict’ rules of special relativity and later modify them in accordance to the bizarreness of general relativity. This modification then allows us to discuss the possibility of apparent FTL travel, although i ...

PSI AP Physics I

... 53. A 31 kg skateboarder is riding a 1.0 kg skateboard at a speed of 2.4 m/s. If he jumps off the board forward at a speed of 5 m/s, what is the speed of the skateboard once he leaves? 54. Two identical boats collide in the water. If the boats were traveling at the same speed at the moment of the co ...

... 53. A 31 kg skateboarder is riding a 1.0 kg skateboard at a speed of 2.4 m/s. If he jumps off the board forward at a speed of 5 m/s, what is the speed of the skateboard once he leaves? 54. Two identical boats collide in the water. If the boats were traveling at the same speed at the moment of the co ...

An introduction to the mechanics of black holes

... is adapted for black holes in equilibrium in stationary spacetimes. We will show how the zero law of mechanics, the consistency of a specific quantity defined on the horizon, directly comes out of the definitions. The tools necessary to handle with the conservations laws in gravity theories are brie ...

... is adapted for black holes in equilibrium in stationary spacetimes. We will show how the zero law of mechanics, the consistency of a specific quantity defined on the horizon, directly comes out of the definitions. The tools necessary to handle with the conservations laws in gravity theories are brie ...

- Free Documents

... is applied to this phenomenon, since the EMF is due to the motion of the wire. In other electrical generators, the magnets move, while the conductors do not. In this case, the EMF is due to the electric force qE term in the Lorentz Force equation. The electric field in question is created by the cha ...

... is applied to this phenomenon, since the EMF is due to the motion of the wire. In other electrical generators, the magnets move, while the conductors do not. In this case, the EMF is due to the electric force qE term in the Lorentz Force equation. The electric field in question is created by the cha ...

Schutz A First Course in General Relativity(Second Edition).

... much prominence to, as have other texts traditionally, is experimental tests of general relativity and of alternative theories of gravity. Points of contact with experiment are treated as they arise, but systematic discussions of tests now require whole books (Will 1981).2 Physicists today have far ...

... much prominence to, as have other texts traditionally, is experimental tests of general relativity and of alternative theories of gravity. Points of contact with experiment are treated as they arise, but systematic discussions of tests now require whole books (Will 1981).2 Physicists today have far ...

Physics Final Exam Problems

... 3. True/False The gravitational force of the earth on an object decreases as the object moves farther from the earth. 4. True/False If the earth was its present volume but more massive, we would weigh more. 5. Why did Newton think there was force acting on the moon? a. Because the moon always keeps ...

... 3. True/False The gravitational force of the earth on an object decreases as the object moves farther from the earth. 4. True/False If the earth was its present volume but more massive, we would weigh more. 5. Why did Newton think there was force acting on the moon? a. Because the moon always keeps ...

Relativity and Gravitation

... FIELD 3 unit mass on a particle are r dV GM 3GQ or rz 2r* r 1 dV 3GQ . /0 = = sin 0 cos 0 . (3) r 86 r* We now investigate the possibility of steady motion of the particle in a circle, parallel to the plane of symmetry, with constant angular velocity a> around the z-axis. Here and in the following w ...

... FIELD 3 unit mass on a particle are r dV GM 3GQ or rz 2r* r 1 dV 3GQ . /0 = = sin 0 cos 0 . (3) r 86 r* We now investigate the possibility of steady motion of the particle in a circle, parallel to the plane of symmetry, with constant angular velocity a> around the z-axis. Here and in the following w ...

"Hidden" Momentum in a Coaxial Cable - Physics

... quantities are averaged over times longer than the time for a charge to move one gap length (≈ one atomic radius), the macroscopic current I is constant and the macroscopic velocity of the center of mass/energy of the charges is zero. ...

... quantities are averaged over times longer than the time for a charge to move one gap length (≈ one atomic radius), the macroscopic current I is constant and the macroscopic velocity of the center of mass/energy of the charges is zero. ...

Chapter 10: Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

... find that actually several Lorentz–invariant equations which replace (10.2) will result, any of these equations being specific for certain classes of particles, e.g., spin–0 particles, spin– 12 particles, etc. As mentioned, some of the equations describe a particle together with its anti-particle. I ...

... find that actually several Lorentz–invariant equations which replace (10.2) will result, any of these equations being specific for certain classes of particles, e.g., spin–0 particles, spin– 12 particles, etc. As mentioned, some of the equations describe a particle together with its anti-particle. I ...

1 | Page TRUCK STOP Conceptually, think of momentum as “inertia

... rest. The small object bounces straight back with a momentum of 5 kg∙m/s. What is the change in the momentum of the small object? What is the impulse exerted on the small ball? What is the impulse exerted on the large object? 42. *A 0.03 kg golf ball is hit off the tee at a speed of 34 m/s. The golf ...

... rest. The small object bounces straight back with a momentum of 5 kg∙m/s. What is the change in the momentum of the small object? What is the impulse exerted on the small ball? What is the impulse exerted on the large object? 42. *A 0.03 kg golf ball is hit off the tee at a speed of 34 m/s. The golf ...

Applications of Clifford Algebras in Physics

... • allows computational geometry without matrices or tensors, • formulates classical physics in an eﬃcient spinorial formulation with tools that are closely related to ones familiar in quantum theory such as spinors (“rotors”) and projectors, and • thereby unites Newtonian mechanics, relativity, quan ...

... • allows computational geometry without matrices or tensors, • formulates classical physics in an eﬃcient spinorial formulation with tools that are closely related to ones familiar in quantum theory such as spinors (“rotors”) and projectors, and • thereby unites Newtonian mechanics, relativity, quan ...

(DOC, Unknown) - Natural Philosophy Alliance

... while some day, no doubt, the ether will be thrown aside as useless’ but he in later part of his scientific work was strong advocate of ether. Lorentz introduced the Ether Theory which had inherent basic errors but on the other hand he introduced the incorrect Lorentz transformation. By introduction ...

... while some day, no doubt, the ether will be thrown aside as useless’ but he in later part of his scientific work was strong advocate of ether. Lorentz introduced the Ether Theory which had inherent basic errors but on the other hand he introduced the incorrect Lorentz transformation. By introduction ...

Ch. 8 notes

... In a car that’s out of control, hit haystack or brick wall? Carpet vs. hard floor; pillow or brick Throw a glass or an egg? Wall vs. haystack: momentum is decreased by same impulse Product of force and time Contact time – the time during which your momentum is brought to zero Haystack – small force, ...

... In a car that’s out of control, hit haystack or brick wall? Carpet vs. hard floor; pillow or brick Throw a glass or an egg? Wall vs. haystack: momentum is decreased by same impulse Product of force and time Contact time – the time during which your momentum is brought to zero Haystack – small force, ...

The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field

... John Bernoulli was working on the refraction of light. In 1861, James Clerk-Maxwell attempted to explain the magnetic field in terms of a sea of such excessively small whirlpools. In his paper “On Physical Lines of Force” [2], he used such a concept to explain magnetism on the basis that these vorti ...

... John Bernoulli was working on the refraction of light. In 1861, James Clerk-Maxwell attempted to explain the magnetic field in terms of a sea of such excessively small whirlpools. In his paper “On Physical Lines of Force” [2], he used such a concept to explain magnetism on the basis that these vorti ...

Momentum

... different than momentum. Momentum is the property of an object in motion. Impulse is force applied for a certain time that causes an object’s momentum to change. ...

... different than momentum. Momentum is the property of an object in motion. Impulse is force applied for a certain time that causes an object’s momentum to change. ...

Ch 6

... What are tensors? Tensors look like matrices; but only certain types of matrices are tensors, as we shall see. They must transform in a certain way under a rotation of the coordinate system. Vectors, with one index, are tensors of the first rank. Other objects, such as the rotation matrices themselv ...

... What are tensors? Tensors look like matrices; but only certain types of matrices are tensors, as we shall see. They must transform in a certain way under a rotation of the coordinate system. Vectors, with one index, are tensors of the first rank. Other objects, such as the rotation matrices themselv ...

# Special relativity

In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time. It is based on two postulates: (1) that the laws of physics are invariant (i.e. identical) in all inertial systems (non-accelerating frames of reference); and (2) that the speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers, regardless of the motion of the light source. It was originally proposed in 1905 by Albert Einstein in the paper ""On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies"". The inconsistency of Newtonian mechanics with Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism and the inability to discover Earth's motion through a luminiferous aether led to the development of special relativity, which corrects mechanics to handle situations involving motions nearing the speed of light. As of today, special relativity is the most accurate model of motion at any speed. Even so, Newtonian mechanics is still useful (due to its simplicity and high accuracy) as an approximation at small velocities relative to the speed of light.Special relativity implies a wide range of consequences, which have been experimentally verified, including length contraction, time dilation, relativistic mass, mass–energy equivalence, a universal speed limit, and relativity of simultaneity. It has replaced the conventional notion of an absolute universal time with the notion of a time that is dependent on reference frame and spatial position. Rather than an invariant time interval between two events, there is an invariant spacetime interval. Combined with other laws of physics, the two postulates of special relativity predict the equivalence of mass and energy, as expressed in the mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, where c is the speed of light in vacuum.A defining feature of special relativity is the replacement of the Galilean transformations of Newtonian mechanics with the Lorentz transformations. Time and space cannot be defined separately from each other. Rather space and time are interwoven into a single continuum known as spacetime. Events that occur at the same time for one observer could occur at different times for another.The theory is ""special"" in that it only applies in the special case where the curvature of spacetime due to gravity is negligible. In order to include gravity, Einstein formulated general relativity in 1915. (Special relativity, contrary to some outdated descriptions, is capable of handling accelerated frames of reference.)As Galilean relativity is now considered an approximation of special relativity that is valid for low speeds, special relativity is considered an approximation of general relativity that is valid for weak gravitational fields, i.e. at a sufficiently small scale and in conditions of free fall. Whereas general relativity incorporates noneuclidean geometry in order to represent gravitational effects as the geometric curvature of spacetime, special relativity is restricted to the flat spacetime known as Minkowski space. A locally Lorentz-invariant frame that abides by special relativity can be defined at sufficiently small scales, even in curved spacetime.Galileo Galilei had already postulated that there is no absolute and well-defined state of rest (no privileged reference frames), a principle now called Galileo's principle of relativity. Einstein extended this principle so that it accounted for the constant speed of light, a phenomenon that had been recently observed in the Michelson–Morley experiment. He also postulated that it holds for all the laws of physics, including both the laws of mechanics and of electrodynamics.