Hw 20 - Cal Poly
... 1. What is absolute zero? Why was it a different flavor of physics from what Newton offered?
2. What is the zero-point energy? How can this force of nothing exist?
3. Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle (HUP) says ΔxΔp ≥ ђ/2. Given the General Uncertainty Relation
ΔAΔB ≥ |<[A, B]>|, prove HUP.
references - StealthSkater
... with Planck's hypothesis of the quantum. And one can only speculate as to the direction that physics
would have taken then.
The list of topics successfully analyzed within the SED formulation (i.e., yielding precise
quantitative agreement with QED treatments) has now been extended to include the har ...
A Simply Regularized Derivation of the Casimir Force
... of fields, there are some indispensable infinities/irregularities and we always try to regularize our calculations to find out the physical finite/regular results. But, what has
happened here? Is there really no regularization in this work? The answer is clearly
negative. Clearly, if we observe the ...
... nontrivial physical fact, that the force depends on the only
parameter of the body - its mass (and not, for example, on
its chemical composition, entropy etc).
The situation gets more complex if the test body is
immersed into gas or fluid. Then
The Origin of Inertia
... represent individual particles and the ink represents energy or mass. Just as pieces of paper of different
sizes and thickness soak up varying amounts of ink, different particles 'soak up' varying amounts of
energy or mass. The observed mass of a particle depends on the particle's 'energy absorbing' ...
... Annihilate the quantum whereas the negative
energy component create the quantum.
This quantum is called a particle of positive
... Stars and galaxies are only ~0.5%
Neutrinos are ~0.3–10%
Rest of ordinary matter (electrons and protons) are ~5%
Zero-Point Energy and Interstellar Travel
... sub-atomic in size. And since the wavelength is so
small, it follows that the frequency is quite high. The
importance of this is that the intensity of the energy
derived for zero-point energy has been reported to be
equal to the cube (the third power) of the frequency.
So obviously, since weÕre alre ...
The Zero-Point Field and the NASA Challenge to Create the Space
... like the "stretching of space itself implied by the Hubble expansion. Alcubierre s concept would indeed be a "warp drive." Unfortunately Pfenning and
Ford (1997) demonstrated that, while the theory may be correct in principle,
the necessary conditions are physically unattainable. In "The Challenge t ...
Zero Point Energy
... Naively, it is infmite, but one must argue that new physics takes over at the Planck scale, and so its growth
is cut off at that point. Even so, what remains is so large that it would visibly bend space, and thus, there
seems to be a contradiction. There is no easy way out, and reconciling the seemi ...
... is the mode function, a normalized solution of the field equation (13). We are using the Heisenberg picture, i.e. we have time-dependent operators; the quantum states are time-independent.
Classically the ground state would be one where ϕ = const. = 0, but we know from the
quantum mechanics of a har ...
... Phase space density:
... possible in such a world are spatial changes, movements… SO at last the task of
physics is to refer phenomena to inalterable attractive and repulsive forces whose
intensity varies with distance. The solubility of this problem is the complete
comprehensibility of nature." Helmholtz ~1890.
Quantum wor ...
TOWARD AN INTERSTELLAR MISSION: ZEROING IN ON
... can sustain: with V, = VP, the ZPF energy density is pzp = 2n2c7/G2k. This is on the order of 10116 ergs
cm -3 s-l . The term “ZPE” is often used to refer to this electromagnetic energy of the zero-point fluctuations
of the quantum vacuum. Note that the strong and weak interactions also have associ ...
... Accurate assesment of surface field is difficult –much fudging.
Spontaneous Teleportation of Biological Systems
... where G=Gibbs energy, H is the enthalpy (where H=U +pV), T is the thermodynamic temperature and
S is the entropy. And when under conditions of constant pressure and temperature, the direction of a
reaction's progress is in the direction of the lower Gibbs energy. The minimum Gibbs energy
The Casimir Effect 1 Introduction
... So why didn’t we get exactly the Casimir force?
The answer is that the VdW forces are not pairwise additive due to multiple scattering. Theoretically, it is possible to make the exact calculation using the VdW approach, however, the calculation
is very complicated and one should try and find an alte ...
What is the Regularized Casimir Vacuum Energy Density? Xinwei Kong
... The structure of these two contributions to the vaccum energy density is exactly the
same as for the full Maxwell field in (4). Only the first, position-independent part will
contribute to the total Casimir energy for this configuration of two parallel plates. On
the other hand, for a spherical shel ...
Vacuum Energy and Effective Potentials
... Consequently, the zero-point energy of the δϕ field remains constant, but the zero-point
energy of Φ depends on the M 2 and hence on the hϕi, so let’s calculate this energy and its
LAMB SHIFT & VACUUM POLARIZATION CORRECTIONS TO THE
... tion, Dirac devised a relativistic wave equation that is linear in both ∂/∂t
and ∇, although he succeeded in avoiding the negative probability density,
negative-energy solutions still occurred. That means that an atomic electron
can have both negative and positive energies. But according to the qua ...
Gravity as a result quantum vacuum energy density
... Mass itself is not producing gravity, gravity is a result of lower energy density (in GR
described as higher curvature of space) of local areas of quantum vacuum.
In the universe there is a general law of homogeneous distribution of energy (second
law of thermodynamics). Because if this law quantum ...
Tunneling and the Vacuum Zero
... of the stochastic processes theory is the study of escape rates
over a potential barrier. The theoretical approach, first proposed by Kramers , has many applications in chemistry kinetics, diffusion in solids, nucleation , and other phenomena . The essential structure of the escape process ...
Why spontaneous emission
... the zero state….When a light quanta is absorbed it is said to jump into this zero state and when one is emitted it can
be considered to jump from the zero state to one in which it is physically in evidence, so that it appears to have been
created. Since there is no limit to the number of light quant ...
Zero-point energy, also called quantum vacuum zero-point energy, is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state.All quantum mechanical systems undergo fluctuations even in their ground state and have an associated zero-point energy, a consequence of their wave-like nature. The uncertainty principle requires every physical system to have a zero-point energy greater than the minimum of its classical potential well. This results in motion even at absolute zero. For example, liquid helium does not freeze under atmospheric pressure at any temperature because of its zero-point energy.The concept of zero-point energy was developed by Max Planck in Germany in 1911 as a corrective term added to a zero-grounded formula developed in his original quantum theory in 1900. The term zero-point energy is a translation from the German Nullpunktsenergie.Vacuum energy is the zero-point energy of all the fields in space, which in the Standard Model includes the electromagnetic field, other gauge fields, fermionic fields, and the Higgs field. It is the energy of the vacuum, which in quantum field theory is defined not as empty space but as the ground state of the fields. In cosmology, the vacuum energy is one possible explanation for the cosmological constant. A related term is zero-point field, which is the lowest energy state of a particular field.Scientists are not in agreement about how much energy is contained in the vacuum and for what purpose if any it could be used. Quantum mechanics requires the energy to be large as Paul Dirac claimed it is, like a sea of energy. Other scientists specializing in General Relativity require the energy to be small enough for curvature of space to agree with observed astronomy. Heisenberg uncertainty principle allows the energy to be as large as needed to promote quantum actions for a brief moment of time, even if the average energy is small enough to satisfy relativity and flat space. To cope with disagreements, the vacuum energy is described as a virtual energy potential of positive and negative energy.While much is known about physical laws, little is known about how the laws are contained in nature, or how the gauge group finds expression in physical actions. Much theoretical work has been done on symmetry groups and topics related to the Standard Model with expectations that a Theory of Everything might be found using fundamental principles to describe the Zero Point Energy, as well as interactions of physical laws and the observed particles of physics. An example is given that Kaluza Klein theory found the Maxwell Equations by adding a fifth dimension to Albert Einstein's field equations. Additional work is continuing in 10 to 12 dimensions of Super Symmetry to describe the vacuum and actions that occur in it. Popular choices for the unifying group are the special unitary group in five dimensions SU(5) and the special orthogonal group in ten dimensions SO(10).