1. The most significant aspect of the social composition of the Download

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1. The most significant aspect of the social composition of the Renaissance art world was
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
the high degree of specialization that was demanded
the high degree of women’s participation in it
the large proportion of artists who came from the elite classes
its apprentice system
the lack of the patronage system
Answer: _____
2. The burden of the Hundred Years’ War fell mostly on the
a. Nobility
b.
c.
d.
e.
Women
Peasants
Military
Clergy
Answer: _____
3. Cosimo de Medici brought stability to this city after his rise to power in 1434
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Milan
Rome
Florence
Naples
Venice
Answer: _____
4. The response of the Roman Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation included all of the
following EXCEPT
a. an increase in the number of parish grammar schools
b. the establishment of the Society of Jesus(Jesuit order)
c. abolition of the index of Prohibited Books
d. the convening of the Council of Trent
e. the founding of women’s orders active in education and care of the sick
Answer: _____
5. Salvation by faith alone, the ministry of all believers, and the authority of the Bible are
principles basic to
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Catholicism after the Council of Trent
the Church of England
the Society of Jesus (Jesuit order)
Lutheranism in the early sixteenth century
the Christian humanism of Erasmus
Answer: _____
6. In the 14th and 15th centuries, mystics, such as Meister Eckhart, Thomas a Kempis, and the founder
of Brothers of the Common Faith, Gerard Groote
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Stressed the importance of the sacraments
Argue the necessity of adhering to dogma
Preached rebellion against the papacy
Land the foundations for Protestantism’s personal approach to worship
Had a universal and popular appeal
Answer: _____
7. The papal bull Unam Sanctum declared that
a. Only men could be priests
b.
c.
d.
e.
The Holy Roman Emperor could establish national churches in the realm
Temporal authority was “subject” t the spiritual power of the Church
Only strong monarchies could fulfill the Christian gospel
A new crusade was necessary in order to unify European spirituality
Answer: _____
8. Which characteristic was common to the Golden Age of Greece and the Italian Renaissance?
a.
b.
c.
d.
a strong military led to national unity
prosperity led to the creation of many works of art
written constitutions led to the establishment of democratic governments
political instability led directly to the formation of unified nation-states
Answer: _____
9. Which of the following reasons did NOT contribute to the wide usage of wet nursing among upper
class women?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Unhappiness with the contraceptive effect of nursing
The use of wet nurses reflected social standing
The milk supply of a stranger was healthier than that of one’s own mother
The church forbade lactating women from indulging in intercourse
e. Vanity and convenience
Answer: _____
10. Which was a major result of the Reformation?
a.
b.
c.
d.
the power of the Pope was strengthened
new Christian denominations emerged
religious teachings were no longer allowed in the universities
the Crusades were organized
Answer: _____
11. Anabaptists are the 16th century ancestors of which of the following modern groups
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Amish
Baptists
Lutherans
Jesuits
Mormons
Answer: _____
12. The Church practice that spurred Luther to revolt was
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Simony-buying or selling church offices
Indulgences-forgiveness of sin or escape from purgatory in exchange for a monetary “gift”
Nepotism-giving church positions to relatives
Absenteeism-clergymen who did not live in their dioceses
Pluralism-holding more than one church position at the same time
Answer: _____
13. The Jesuits
a.
b.
c.
d.
all of the above
served as advisors to Catholic kings
rooted out heresy through press censorship
became involved in the education of Catholic children
e. converted “heathens” through missionary work
Answer: _____
14. Which of the following was NOT a reason for the rapid spread of Lutheranism in the 1520s and
1530s?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Charles V’s involvement in foreign wars
The conversion of the princes of Northern Germany
The rise of dissenting sects
Popular resentment in Germany against Rome
The failure of the Pope to call a church council
Answer: _____
15. Which major movement in European history started with the idea expressed in this statement?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Protestant Reformation
Renaissance
Industrial Revolution
Commercial Revolution
Answer: _____
16. Which dynasty of merchants, bankers, and depots of Florence used its wealth to patronize the great
creative artist of the day?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Sforza
Medici
Condottieri
Bellini
Petrarch
Answer: _____
17. Major Protestant and Roman Catholic leaders of the sixteenth century condemned the Anabaptists
because Anabaptists
a. advocated a complete separation of church and state
b. restored the privileges of the clergy
c. tried to reconcile Protestant and Catholic teachings
d. favored government enforcement of morality
e. rejected the Bible as the source of the religious truth
Answer: _____
18. After the a radical beginning marked by violence, Anabaptist communities
a. Fell apart after the execution of their leaders
b. Fled to England where there was religious toleration
c. Lost interest in the Reformation when they realized that Luther did not agree with them
d. Turned their attention inward, rejecting violence and the influence of outsiders
e. Attacked the ideas of the Mennonites
Answer: _____
19. After Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453, which of the following cities claimed to be
the "third Rome"?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Geneva
Warsaw
Madrid
Budapest
Moscow
Answer: _____
20. The Hapsburg-Valois wars were wars fought between France and
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Italy: Italy won all four major battles
Italy: France won all four major battles
England: France won all four major battles
Spain: Spain won all four major battles
Spain: France won all four major battles
Answer: _____
21. Italian balance-of-power diplomacy
a. Was critical to the economic success of Italy
b. Successfully prevented foreign domination of Italy
c. Was designed to prevent a single Italian state form dominating the peninsula
d. Was primarily concerned with controlling the papacy
Answer: _____
22. Which of the following statements is true regarding western European family life in the period
1750-1850?
a. The birth rate increased significantly due to government social welfare programs
b. There was an increased importance placed on child-rearing among the upper classes
c. Life expectancy declined due to the hazards associated with industrialization.
d. Most nations repealed laws that enforced the legal and economic inferiority of women
e. There was a significant decline in out-of-wedlock births due to Enlightenment reforms.
Answer: _____
23. “Christians should be taught that he who gives to a poor man or lends to a needy man does better
than if he used the money to buy an indulgence.”
The writer summarized the philosophy of the Brother of the Common Life in what became the most
popular religious book of the period, the Imitation of Christ
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Nicholas of Cusa
Desiderius Erasmus
Thomas a Kempis
Hebraist Johannes Reuchlin
Martin Luther
Answer: _____
24. The Anglican Church, as created by Henry VIII, differed from other Protestant churches in that it
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
abolished the sacraments
remained loyal to Rome
had an episcopal structure
was congregational
broke with Rome
Answer: _____
25. Which was one of the most important accomplishments of The Council of Trent(1545-1563)?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Simony and pluralism were established
reforms led to a spiritual renewal of the Roman Catholic Church
reconciliation with the Protestants
The Roman Inquisition was established
the sale of indulgences was encouraged
Answer: _____
26. The broadest social division of the 11th century Russia was between
a.
b.
c.
d.
Freemen and slaves
Clergy and principality
Peasants and townspeople
Army officers and freemen
Answer: _____
27. Social strife and competition for political power became so intense within the cities that most
evolved into
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
democracies
Oligrachies
Mini-monarchies
Feudal states
Despotisms
Answer: _____
28. The canonical, or church-sanctioned, age for marriage prior to 16th century was which of the
following ages for men
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
18
25
14
30
21
Answer: _____
29. The Protestant Reformation represents a turning point in European history because it
a.
b.
c.
d.
standardized all religious writings
ended religious unity in Western Europe
allowed religious reformers to escape persecution
forced most of Europe’s monarchs to become Protestants
Answer: _____
30. Which of the following was most typical of preindustrial European village society?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Long life expectancy
Low infant-mortality rates
Upward economic mobility from one generation to the next
Single-crop agricultural production
Domestic manufacture of most household goods
Answer: _____
31. "In conformity, therefore, to the clear doctrine of the Scripture, we assert, that by an eternal and
immutable counsel, God has once for all determined, both whom he would admit to salvation, and whom
he would condemn to destruction."
The idea expressed in the passage above is most closely associated with the theological views of
a. Thomas More
b. Erasmus
c. Ignatius Loyola
d. John Calvin
e. Pope Leo X
Answer: _____
32. Ludovico of Milan’s fatal mistake was that he
a. claimed Naples for himself, as king and disregarded French dynastic claims to rule
b. appealed to the French for help and invited them to reenter Italy and receive their dynastic
claim to Naples
c. sold the city of Milan to the French without proper authority
d. spurned all attempts by the French to forge an alliance with Milan
e. disregarded the threat posed by Milan and supported by Florence, and denied
French aid or assistance
Answer: _____
33. Luther’s decision to marry Katherine Von Bora was an example of
a. How traditional matchmaking remained significant in rural German communities
b. How clergy could misinterpret Catholic
c. A personal decision that involved no religious principles
d. The means by which Luther reached the decision to challenge the Church on the
issue of the sacraments
e. The changing role of the clergy in Protestant churches
Answer: _____
34. The medieval church had always taught that salvation was
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Only for priest and nuns
A joint venture
Dictated by God’s judgement
Impossible and therefore one must constantly repent
Solely left to the individual
Answer: _____
35. Couples in early modern Europe generally put off marriage until they were, on average, in their mid
to late twenties because
a. sexual maturation was delayed until the mid twenties because of poor nutrition
b.
c.
d.
e.
they needed to acquire land or learn a trade route before they could support a family
the customs and mores of a society dominated by religion promoted sexual restraint
they were concerned about scarcity of housing
laws prohibited marriage without parental permission before the age of majority
Answer: _____
36. An indulgence was
a. A punishment meted out by the pope to heretics
b. A remission of the temporal penalty imposed on penitents by pries as work of satisfaction
for their confessed sins
c. A payment to obtain an office in Church
d. A payment from a monarch to the Church
e. Forgiveness given by the pope exclusively to Protestants in order to entice them back to the
Church
Answer: _____
37. Luther’s political conservatism is revealed in which of the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
His condemnation of the Peasants’ War
His support for the extermination of the Munster Commune
His preference for political order over social justice
All of these
His willing acceptance of the support of the German princes
Answer: _____
38. At the outset of the Hundred Years’ War
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
France had a larger population that England
The English navy ruled the seas
England was in a state of civil war
England was wealthier that France
France was superior militarily
Answer: _____
39. Martin Luther
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Believed that marriage was un-Christian
Was pledged to the Church at an early age
Was a diplomat in the court of Charles V
Was the son of a successful miner
Had no formal training in theology
Answer: _____
40. The government of Venice during the Renaissance may closely be labeled a
a. Republic
b.
c.
d.
e.
Constitutional monarchy
Democracy
Autocracy
Dictatorship
Answer: _____
41. Calvin differed form Luther by stressing which theological doctrine?
a. The right of the clergy to marry
b. The Bible as the ultimate authority for Christian doctrine
c. The rejection of all byt tow of the sacraments
d. The concept of predestination
e. The effect of “good works” in winning personal salvation
Answer: _____
42. Renaissance humanism was a contradiction of the Middle Ages in that it
a. Emphasized the goodness of the present and the power of humanity
b. Denied Church doctrine, including the Trinity
c. Sought a logical explanation for the outbreak of plague in the 14th century
d. Promoted art, especially painting
e. Ignored the authority of the Church
Answer: _____
43. 15th century attempts to centralize and consolidate power were most successful in
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Italy
England
Spain
Germany
France
Answer: _____
44. Renaissance artists viewed the medieval past with
a. The same reverence that they held for the classical period
b. No clear sense that their own age was distinct from the medieval period
c. Disdain for what they perceived to be its backwardness
d. Tremendous respect for their achievements, though they did not view them as equal to the
ancients
e. Great interest because it served to inspire their own works of art
Answer: _____
45. In the 17th century Western Europe, marriage patterns showed a tendency toward:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
non-noble women marrying much younger men
romantic love as the major factor in choosing a spouse
intermarriage between peasant families and noble families
intermarriage between Christians and Jews
relatively late first marriages by non-noble women
Answer: _____
46. In early modern Europe, which of the following most directly undermined the guild system?
a. The increased demand for products for the Far East and New
World, such as spices and silk
b. The use of credit in business transactions
c. Entrepreneurial expansion of manufacturing into the
countryside
d. The expansion of the supply of precious metals
e. The imposition of high tariffs on imported goods
Answer: _____
47. A difference between the teachings of Martin Luther and those of John Calvin centered around
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The idea of salvation by faith alone
Reliance on scripture
The doctrine of predestination
Disregard for most of the sacraments
Services in the vernacular
Answer: _____
48. During the early 16th century the need for reform within the Roman Catholic Church was indicated
by all of the following EXCEPT
a. the extravagant lifestyle of prelates and popes
b. clerical pluralism
c. Clerical immorality
d. the lack of education of the ordinary clergy
e. the growth of The Brethren of the Common Life
Answer: _____
49. Which of the following was NOT a factor that contributed to the Renaissance artistic achievement?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The invasion of Italy by the French
The lack of separation between artistic and commercial aspects of the Renaissance art world
The apprentice system
The competitive spirit of competing elites
Patronage of the pope
Answer: _____
50. Which societal condition was basic to the development of Greek philosophy and
Renaissance art?
a.
b.
c.
d.
emphasis on individualism
mass education
religious uniformity
rigid social classes
Answer: _____
51. Ferdinand and Isabella were able to do all of the following EXCEPT
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Conquer southern France
Venture abroad militarily
Christianize the whole of Spain
Secure their borders
Subdue their realms
Answer: _____
52. Which of the following was NOT a goal of the Catholic and Counter –Reformations?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The reform of abuses within the Roman Catholic Church
the conversion of the populations of southern Europe
The stemming of the spread of Protestantism
The suppression of heresy
The confirmation of the Church’s basic dogma
Answer: _____
53. The teachings of which of the following had the greatest impact on the Reformation in Scotland?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Ulrich Zwingli
John Calvin
Desiderius Erasmus
Ignatius of Loyola
Martin Luther
Answer: _____
54. In his On Christian Liberty, Luther used the term “freedom” to mean
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Freedom from the Roman Catholic Church
Political liberty
Freedom from any type of servile situation
Freedom from taxes
Freedom from poverty
Answer: _____
55. “It was an important confederation of commercial towns in northern Germany with its own laws,
diplomats, and flags. Its membership of merchants earned large profits shipping fish, timber, and other
resources to areas to the west and to the south. Prosperity declined, however, when trade routes shifted
from the Baltic to the Atlantic after 1500.” The description above refers to the
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Hanseatic League
Holy Roman Empire
Merchants of the Staple
Schmalkaldic League
Confederation of the Rhine
Answer: _____
56. Renaissance culture
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Stressed Greco-Roman ideals of gender equality
Was that of a small business elite
Was enjoyed by most Europeans
Was rejected by the Church for its secularism
Mirrored the attitudes of the urban population
Answer: _____
57. Which of the following is a significant difference between medieval and Renaissance sculpture?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Renaissance sculpture was devoid of religious subjects
Renaissance art represented the visible world rather than conventional symbolism
The shift from the Old Testament to New Testament themes
Renaissance sculpture was no longer commissioned by the popes
The use of stone rather that wood
Answer: _____
58. All of the following were effects of the Hundred Years War EXCEPT
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
A series of peasant rebellions
The rise of a Spanish Empire in the New World
A significant decrease in the population
An economically weaker England
A more politically unified France
Answer: _____
59. When German peasants revolted in 1524-1525, the won the support of
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
None of these groups
The pope
Martin Luther
John Calvin
The merchant class
Answer: _____
60. The Council of Trent
a. Insisted that the Catholic Church was the final arbiter in all matters of faith
b.
c.
d.
e.
Excommunicated Martin Luther
Produce the Treaty of Augsburg
Reconciled Protestants and Catholics
Established the Inquisition
Answer: _____
61. Demographic changes in the late 16th and early 17th century Europe contributed to
a. state budget surpluses
b. price inflation and a decrease in real wages
c. higher population densities in Eastern Europe that Western Europe
d. market agriculture and a decline in commerce
e. greater equity in patterns of land ownership
Answer: _____
62. During the early 16th century the need for reform within the Roman Catholic Church was indicated
by all of the following EXCEPT
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Clerical pluralism
Clerical immorality
The extravagant lifestyle of prelates and popes
The lack of education of the ordinary clergy
The growth of The Brethren of the Common Life
Answer: _____
63. Renaissance art
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Abandoned painting in favor of sculpture
Was characterized by religious subject matter
Was characterized by its concern for the human form
Did not require patrons
Was characterized by the severe specialization of its artists
Answer: _____
64. One of the tenets of Protestantism as stated in the Confession of Augsburg was that
religious authority rests with
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
the pope
the Ecumenical Councils
the German princes
the Holy Roman Emperor
the Bible
Answer: _____
65. The most inclusive and influential of the early Protestant reformers was
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
John Knox
Calvin
Zwingli
Luther
Michael Servetus
Answer: _____
66. Which social group suffered the greatest decline in power as a result of the plague?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Women
Clergy
Noble landholders
Peasants
Urban elites
Answer: _____
67. The Black Death found its way into Europe via:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Spain
Scandinavia
Greenland and Iceland
Asian trade routes
North Africa
Answer: _____
68. Martin Luther initially criticized the Roman Catholic church on the grounds that it
a. used indulgences as a fund-raising device
b. formed close associations with secular rulers
c. supported priests as religious teachers
d. sponsored translations of the Bible into vernacular languages
e. reduced the number of sacraments
Answer: _____
69. Machiavelli’s The Prince represented an attempt to find ways to
a.
b.
c.
d.
Unify the entire Italian peninsula under a powerful leader
Show how the rule princes was clearly inferior to republican forms of government
Blend medieval and Renaissance scholarship
Convince the French to intercede in Italian affairs on behalf of his native Florence
Answer: _____
70. Lutheranism was introduced into Denmark by
a. King Gustavus Vasa
b.
c.
d.
e.
King Gustavus Vasa II
King Thorfinn II
King Christian I
King Christian III
Answer: _____
71. All of the following are true of the bubonic plague EXCEPT
a.
a. It was known as the Black Death
b. It spread rapidly once it arrived in Europe
c. It struck only children and the elderly
d.
a. It was transmitted by rat-or human-borne fleas
e.
a. It was transmitted along trade routes
Answer: _____
72. The theology of Calvin differs from Luther’s in which of the following ways?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The belief that salvation is earned by faith alone
The belief that the church hierarchy is unwarranted and harmful
The belief that the Bible should be printed in the vernacular
The belief that some have been predestined for salvation
The belief that scripture alone is the guide to salvation
Answer: _____
73. “It was a literary movement that reflected an new way of looking at the human condition. The
writers were laymen, not clergy , who examined secular issues such as politics and the emotional life of
the individual. While they drew on the themes of the ancient classics and often wrote in classical Latin
and Greek, they also laid the foundations for modern language and literature by writing in their mother
tongue”
The literary movement described above is
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Secularism
Classicism
Virtu
Individualism
Humanism
Answer: _____
74. The Church of England as initially established by Henry VIII in 1536 was
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Torn by religious skepticism
Fundamentally Calivinist
Dominated by the concept of salvation by faith alone
Closely tied to Lutheranism
Tied to traditional Catholic practices
Answer: _____
75. Which statement best describes a characteristic of the Renaissance in Europe?
a.
b.
c.
d.
humanism decreased in importance
creativity in the arts was encouraged
the political structure was similar to that of the Roman Empire
the social structure became very rigid
Answer: _____
76. All of the following are basic theological beliefs of Martin Luther EXCEPT
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
All who have faith can and should read the Bible
The Church hierarchy was unwarranted and harmful
Scripture is the only guide to knowledge of God
Salvation is attainable by faith alone
Good works are essential to salvation
Answer: _____
77. Endemic warfare between the pope and the Holy Roman Emperor
a. Assisted the growth of Italian city states
b.
c.
d.
e.
Was a boon for the landed nobility
Had little effect on Italy
Depopulated Italy’s cities
Had all but ended by 1000
Answer: _____
78. Sir Thomas More accepted martyrdom at the hands of Henry VIII because
a. He thought this would convince Henry of the errors of his ways
b.
c.
d.
e.
He could not imagine any sort of criticism fo the Catholic Church
He would not swear the Oath of Supremacy
He was already deathly ill
Erasmus convinced him that it was correct to seek martyrdom
Answer: _____
79. He was known as the the “father of humanism”
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Giovani Bocaccio
Guarino da Verona
Dante Alighieri
Francesco Petrarch
Cosimo de Medici
Answer: _____
80. Renaissance humanism is primarily defined as
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
an artistic style that portrayed the depraved state of human beings
a curriculum based on the study of the classics, rhetoric, and history
a religious movement that attempted to make Christianity relevant to daily experience
an antireligious program dedicated to the destruction of the Church
a philosophical movement that emphasized the beauty of nature
Answer: _____