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the only case of violent escalation uniquely covered by the causal combination of negative
othering, low power differences and external resource appropriation. This finding confirms
doubts about the robustness of external resource appropriation as an INUS condition raised by
the first robustness test.
Thirdly, a QCA with twenty cases can also be run with five instead of four conditions
(Marx/Dusa 2011), although the number of logical remainders grows with the inclusion of each
additional condition. Recent research has emphasized the importance of education for the
prevention of violence over scarce renewable resources. Well-educated individuals can, for
example, introduce technologies to use scarce resources more efficient or seek employment in the
secondary/tertiary sector (Bretthauer 2014). Similarly, a low level of development is argued to
facilitate the violent escalation of conflicts over scarce renewable resources (e.g. HomerDixon/Blitt 1998c; WBGU 2008). Since poverty and peripheral location constitute the
homogeneity space of this study, all twenty cases were characterized by comparatively low levels
of development. But one can nevertheless detect differences between the cases. I therefore run
the analysis two additional times, once with education (edu) and once with low level of
development (lowdev) as an additional condition. The percentage of the population which
completed primary education is used as a proxy for education, while a high child (under-five)
mortality rate indicates a low level of development. Sub-national (although not case-specific) data
on both indicators are obtained from the Demographic and Health Survey Program (2013).25
For both analyses, the complex and the intermediate solution formula are identical. The solution
formula (consistency: 0.87; coverage: 0.54) of the analysis including level of development is:
negaoth * ~powerdiff * politchang * lowdev -> violence
In accordance with the theoretical expectations, the presence of a low level of development
facilitates the violent escalation of conflicts over scarce renewable resources. But more important
is that negative othering, the absence of large power differences and recent political change are
again highlighted as INUS conditions for violent escalation, while (the presence or absence of)
external resource is not part of the solution formula.
Basically the same can be said for rerunning the analysis including the level of education, which
results in the following solution term (consistency: 0.88; coverage: 0.58):
negaoth * ~powerdiff * politchang * ~edu -> violence
In line with theoretical expectations, the absence of high levels of education is an INUS
condition, while the other three elements of the solution term remain unaltered.
Set membership scores are calibrated based on natural gaps in the data. Child mortality: 0-49/1000 = 0; 5099/1000 = 0.33; 100-149/1000 = 0.67; ≥150/1000 = 1. Primary education completed: 0-9% = 0; 10-19% = 0,33;
20-33% = 0.67; ≥34% = 1. Threshold for the inclusion of truth table rows in the logical minimization: 0.8.