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which legalized the expropriation of land in case it was not productively used. These
contradictive and not well-specified regulations raised expectations of both large landowners and
poor/landless squatters.
Negative othering: 1
Landless and poor rural dwellers perceived the large landholders as an existential threat to their
economic existence. The large landholders and parts of the local state administration and political
elites considered members of MST and similar groups as dangerous, rebellious, communist,
criminal and underdeveloped. The negative othering between both groups was intensified by
narratives about violent, and often deadly land conflicts since 1835 and especially since the
colonization of the area from the mid-1950s onwards.