FRQ Practice Download

Transcript
FRQ Practice
Essay
1. Your friend Dave says: “How can you stand to study the history of psychology? Every single one of
those theories is basically the same: the brain controls our behavior.” Given the history of
psychology, evaluate Dave's claim using the following terms in their appropriate context:
•Introspection
•Psychoanalytic theory
•Behaviorism
•Humanistic psychology
•Cognitive revolution
•Cognitive dissonance
•Conformity
•Social-cultural perspective
2. Professor Hahn received a grant to study the relationship between childhood obesity and video game
playing. Answer the following questions about Professor Hahn's research study:
A. Explain how Professor Hahn could use each of the following research methods to study this topic:
• Case study
• Survey
• Naturalistic observation
B. Design an experiment Professor Hahn could use to investigate this topic, including the following
terms in the context of your design.
• Operational definition
• Independent and dependent variable
• Random assignment
C. Explain how Professor Hahn's experimental design would conform to ethical guidelines.
D. Explain how Professor Hahn would use statistics (including at least one measure of central
tendency and inferential statistics) to examine the data from the study to reach a conclusion.
3. If you stub your toe, how does the impulse travel through your nervous system allowing you to pull
your toe back and jump up and down in pain? Explain how this process occurs (including the
process of neural transmission) using the following terms in context:
• Sensory neuron
• Peripheral nervous system
• Central nervous system
• Interneuron
• Motor neuron
• Action potential
• Neurotransmitter
• Synapse
4. A patient who is admitted to the hospital after a stroke suffers from the following symptoms:
episodes of intense, unexplainable fear; difficulty speaking and reading aloud; and blindness in his
right visual field.
Part A: Using the terms below, explain why you would use these scans to investigate the patient's
brain functioning and,
• PET Scan
• MRI scan
Part B: Using the terms below, explain which brain structures you predict might have been affected
by the stroke, and why you think those brain structures were affected. (Note: Not all the brain
structures listed below were necessarily affected by the stroke. Your essay should clearly indicate
which brain structures you predict were affected and which were not.)
• Brainstem
• Amygdala
• Hypothalamus
• Occipital lobe
• Broca's area
• Angular gyrus
5. Professor Mendel, a behavior geneticist, is interested in studying the relative contributions of nature
and nurture to the personality trait of extraversion in humans.
Part A: Use the following terms to explain possible biological components of extraversion.
• Chromosomes
• Genes
• Temperament
Part B: Describe how Professor Mendel might complete a study of separated twins to investigate the
influence of nature and nurture on extraversion. In your description, explain how the research could
employ the case study, survey, and naturalistic observation methods. Be sure to explain how you
would operationally define extraversion in the description of your study.
6. Use the following terms to describe in detail how you visually perceive an object that you can see
right now. Use the terms in order to correctly describe the sequence of events involved in your
example of visual perception.
• Thalamus
• Retina
• Pupil
• Transduction
• Action potential
• Feature detector
• Excitatory neurotransmitter
7. Professor Dement believes that different states of consciousness are each associated with increased
levels of activity in specific, different parts of the brain. Develop at least one possible hypothesis
Professor Dement might want to study to test this belief and design an experiment to test the
hypothesis. Use the following terms correctly in your response.
• Independent variable
• Dependent variable
• Operational definition
• fMRI
• Psychoactive drugs
• REM sleep
• Hypnosis
8. Many people who are addicted to drugs report not being able to control themselves when their drug
of choice is available. Learning principles may help explain this lack of control and may provide
possible solutions.
A. Some people with alcohol dependence report that just the smell of alcohol creates a powerful
sense of well-being, increasing the desire to drink the alcohol. Explain this reaction using a classical
conditioning model, and describe one possible way to decrease the reaction. Use the following terms
in your answer:
• Unconditioned stimulus
• Unconditioned response
• Conditioned stimulus
• Conditioned response
• Extinction
B. In cases of long-term addiction, some users report continuing their drug use to avoid the side
effects of being without the drug. Explain this behavior using an operant conditioning model. Use
the following terms in your answer.
• Tolerance
• Withdrawal
• Negative reinforcement
9. Professor Proust, a memory researcher, designs an experiment to test the hypothesis that reading
picture books designed for children significantly enhances college students' memories of childhood.
She asks participants to write about significant childhood memories, and to circle any events they
remember from a list of common memories (such as getting lost in a store or breaking a leg, etc.).
Part A: Use the following terms to describe how Professor Proust should choose the participants and
experimental/control groups for her study:
• Population
• Random sample
• Random assignment
Part B: Use the following concepts to predict the kinds of memories participants are most likely to
write about:
• Semantic encoding
• Recall
• Recognition
• Retroactive interference
Part C: Explain how the misinformation effect might influence the accuracy of the memories
reported on the survey.
10. Language researchers agree that our language development progresses from babbling to the one-
word stage through the two-word, telegraphic speech stage. However, researchers have disagreed
about how we acquire language and move from stage to stage.
Part A: Provide an example of language acquisition that supports the claim that we acquire language
through operant conditioning. Your example should show language acquisition progressing from
babbling through telegraphic speech and should use the following terms in the correct context:
• Positive reinforcement
• Shaping
• Intermittent reinforcement
Part B: Provide an example of language acquisition that supports the claim that we acquire language
because of Chromsky's "inborn universal grammar" theory. Your example should show language
acquisition progressing from babbling through telegraphic speech and should use the following ideas
in the correct context:
• Language acquisition device
• Universal grammar
• The tendency to overgeneralize rules of grammar
11. Sue was feeling a little sad and didn't feel like volunteering at the homeless shelter as she had
promised. But then she remembered that, earlier in the day, her friend Rob got his foot stuck in a
wastebasket, took one step, and fell over. When she thought about this episode, she smiled and felt a
little better. She started to feel a bit happier, so she went to the shelter to help out.
Explain how a psychologist might use the following concepts to explain how Sue remembered this
episode and the relationship between this memory, Sue's behavior, and her emotions.
• Automatic encoding
• Explicit memory
• Mood-congruent memory
• Two-factor theory
• Facial feedback
• Feel-good, do-good phenomenon
• Relative deprivation
FRQ Practice
Answer Section
ESSAY
1. ANS:
Point 1: Introspection: Students should demonstrate an understanding of the technique of
introspection (training participants to carefully report elements of specific sensory experiences) and
relate this technique to Dave's claim. Students could argue that it supports Dave's claim because it
focuses on the relationship between our behaviors and our inner experiences, or that it contradicts
Dave's claim because it focuses on something other than the brain's “control” of our behavior.
Point 2: Psychoanalytic theory: Students should demonstrate an understanding of psychoanalytic
theory (the idea that unconscious anxieties and desires control our behavior) and relate this theory to
Dave's claim. The explanation of this relationship should include the idea that psychoanalytic theory
refutes Dave's claim that all psychological theories are the same, because psychoanalytic theory is
unique in the way it explains and deals with unconscious aspects of the mind.
Point 3: Behaviorism: Students should demonstrate an understanding of the concept of behaviorism
(our behaviors are controlled by past conditioning). When relating behaviorism to Dave's claim,
students should discuss how behaviorism refutes the claim that our thoughts control our behaviors by
noting that behaviorists contend that past learning, not cognition, explains and predicts behavior.
Point 4: Humanistic psychology: Students should demonstrate an understanding of this perspective
and how humanists view the relationship between our motivations and behaviors. Student responses
should include the idea that humanistic psychologists believe that humans strive to overcome
obstacles in their path and that negative behaviors will improve given proper environmental
conditions and the supportive reactions of those around them.
Point 5: Cognitive revolution: Students should demonstrate an understanding of the nature of the
cognitive revolution (which emphasized that how we remember and process information influences
our behaviors). Students might explain the ways in which this supports Dave's claim, noting that
cognitive psychologists agree that our brain is a primary influence on behavior or emphasizing how
the cognitive revolution was a change in the history of psychology, refuting Dave's claim.
Point 6: Cognitive dissonance: Students should demonstrate an understanding of cognitive
dissonance (a phenomenon occurring when we change our thinking about a situation after acting in a
specific way). Students should discuss how this concept contradicts Dave's claim that all
psychological theories involve ways that thinking guides behavior, since these research findings
establish that our behaviors can influence the way we think.
Point 7: Conformity: Students should demonstrate an understanding of the social psychological
concept of conformity (the tendency to conform to the behaviors of a group). Students should
discuss how conformity research findings contradict Dave's claim, since many social psychologists
predict our behaviors can be changed through social factors regardless of our cognitive attitudes.
Point 8: Social-cultural perspective: Students should discuss how the social-cultural perspective
contradicts Dave's claim. Social-cultural researchers focus on the powerful ways in which culture
influences and predicts our behaviors, including the study of how psychological principles either
affect all humans universally regardless of culture or how the principles affect people differently in
different cultures. This research focus does not involve how the brain influences behavior.
REF: Section- Psychology's History and Approaches
2. ANS:
Point 1: Case Study: Students should note that Professor Hahn should choose one child and gather
detailed information about that child's video game habits and health (such as eating habits, weight,
and other related factors).
Point 2: Survey: Students should note that Professor Hahn should gather data from a large sample of
children representing his population of children through a survey measuring both video game
playing and obesity.
Point 3: Naturalistic observation: Students should note that Professor Hahn should gather data about
children's video game habits and health by observing behaviors in a public setting.
Point 4: Operational definition: Students should provide at least one correct operational definition
for video game playing (such as timing how long children play video games) and obesity (such as
calculating body mass index).
Point 5: Independent and dependent variables: Students should identify video game playing as the
independent variable and obesity as the dependent variable in the experimental design.
Point 6: Random assignment: Students should explain how participants could be randomly assigned
to either the experimental condition or the control condition (the conditions should differ based on
the independent variable: video game playing).
Point 7: Ethical guidelines: Students' experimental design should conform to ethical guidelines for
human participants, including accurate descriptions of how the experiment includes informed
consent, protection from harm, confidentiality, and debriefing.
Point 8: Use of Statistics: Students' explanation of how Professor Hahn would use statistics to
examine results of the experimental design they described should include at least one measure of
central tendency (mean, median, or mode) and the idea that inferential statistics would be used to
determine if the difference between the experimental group and the control group is statistically
significant.
REF: Section- Research Methods: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science
3. ANS:
(Note: Students may cover the description of neural transmission involved with the action potential,
neurotransmitter, and synapse in any of the steps in this question; they do not need to cover them in
the order of the terms in the question.)
Point 1: Sensory neuron: Students should explain that sensory neurons in the toe fire in response to
stubbing your toe.
Point 2: Peripheral nervous system: Students should explain that messages from the rest of the body
(including the sensory neuronal impulses that fired when the toe was stubbed) travel through the
peripheral nervous system on their way to the brain.
Point 3: Central nervous system: Students should explain that sensory impulses from the rest of the
body (including the message from the stubbed toe) travel up the spinal cord to the brain.
Point 4: Interneuron: Students should explain that messages travel within the brain via interneurons.
Point 5: Motor neuron: Students should explain that the brain sends messages to muscles through
motor neurons (including the message to jump up and down in pain).
Point 6: Action potential: Students should explain that electrical charges travel within neurons
during neural transmission.
Point 7: Neurotransmitter: Students should explain that neurotransmitters are released in response to
an action potential and these neurotransmitters travel to other neurons during neural transmission.
Point 8: Synapse: Students should explain that neural transmission involves neurotransmitters
flowing into the synapse, the gap between neurons, and these neurotransmitters may fire the next
neural cell.
REF: Section- Biological Bases of Behavior: 3A—Neural Processing and the Endocrine System
4. ANS:
Part A:
Point 1: PET scan: Students should explain that a PET scan might be used on this patient to identify
areas of the brain that are more or less active.
Point 2: MRI scan: Students should explain that an MRI scan might be used on this patient to
examine brain structures for possible damage or structural abnormalities resulting from the stroke.
Part B:
Point 3: Brainstem: Students should explain that the patient's brainstem likely was not affected
because none of the symptoms involve brainstem functions, such as breathing, heartbeat, or filtering
incoming stimuli.
Point 4: Amygdala: Students should explain that the patient's amygdala may have been affected
because the amygdala controls rage and fear responses.
Point 5: Hypothalamus: Students should explain that the patient's hypothalamus probably was not
affected because none of the symptoms directly involve hypothalamic functions: reward centers,
endocrine control, hunger, thirst, body temperature, or sexual behavior. Students could score this
point by explaining a possible connection between damage to the hypothalamus and the patient's fear
episodes if they clearly indicate that these feelings might be connected to endocrine control (for
example, the release of adrenaline, fight-or-flight response).
Point 6: Occipital lobe: Students should explain that the patient's occipital lobe is in his left
hemisphere was likely affected because it controls visual perception for objects in the right visual
field.
Point 7: Broca's are: Students should explain that Broca's area in the patient's brain was likely
affected because this structure controls speaking aloud.
Point 8: Angular gyrus: Students should explain that the angular gyrus in the patient's brain was
likely affected because this structure controls reading aloud.
REF: Section- Biological Bases of Behavior: 3B—The Brain
5. ANS:
Part A:
Point 1: Chromosome: Students should explain that chromosomes are chains of genetic material
(DNA) and any genetic basis for extraversion would be located on one of these chromosomes.
Point 2: Genes: Students should explain that genes are segments of DNA and are responsible for
specific traits. If extraversion has a genetic basis, one or more genes are responsible for the
expressions of repression or extraversion.
Point 3: Temperament: Students should explain that research indicates that babies are born with
relatively stable temperaments, including tendencies toward outgoing or "fearless" infants or
introverted, "shy" infants. These newborn temperaments are evidence in support of a genetic basis of
extraversion.
Part B:
Point 4: Case Study: Students should explain that the separated twin study could employ a case
study--an in-depth analysis of two identical twins separated at birth and raised separately. These twin
pairs are relatively rare, so a case study would be an efficient research method to use to gather
extensive information about these individuals.
Point 5: Survey: Students should explain that Professor Mendel would most likely want to gather
information about the separated twins' attitudes, opinions, and so on. Using the survey method would
be an efficient way of gathering these kinds of attitudinal data about twins.
Point 6: Naturalistic Observation: Students should explain that data will need to be gathered during
the separated twin study about their physical behaviors (e.g., sleep habits, food preferences, physical
habits/postures). Naturalistic observation would be an efficient way to gather data about these
behaviors.
Point 7: Operational Definition of Extraversion: Students should provide at least one reasonable
operational definition of extraversion. Possible examples include (but aren't limited to): a personality
instrument measuring the degree to which each twin is outgoing, an observational checklist of
outgoing behaviors, a survey of family members of the separated twins about their degree of
outgoingness, and so on.
REF: Section- Biological Bases of Behavior: 3C—Genetics-Evolutionary Psychology-and Behavior
6. ANS:
Point 1: Pupil: Students should describe how light reflects off the object, and some of the light
passes through the pupil into the eye.
Point 2: Retina: Students should explain that the light that passes through the pupil is eventually
reflected on the pupil, activating neurons in the retina. Students may use the terms rods and/or cones
to describe these neurons, but they do not have to use these specific terms to earn this point.
Point 3: Transduction: Students should explain that light waves that were reflected off the object are
changed into neural impulses (transduction) at the point of the retina, where neurons fire in response
to light waves. Again, students may use the terms rods and/or cones to describe these neurons, but
they do not have to use these specific terms to earn this point.
Point 4: Action potential: Students should explain that action potentials are released when neurons
fire, sending an electrical charge through the neuron. Students can go on to explain this process in
more detail (describing the role of neural structures such as dendrites and the axon.) but they do not
need to explain those details to earn the point.
Point 5: Excitatory neurotransmitter: Students should explain that excitatory neurotransmitters are
released when the action potential reaches the axon terminal, and that these neurotransmitters
increase the chances that the next neuron will fire.
Point 6: Thalamus: Students should describe the role of the thalamus in the process, specifically that
the neural message from the retina first passes through the thalamus, and that the thalamus routes the
impulse elsewhere in the brain.
Point 7: Feature detector: Students should discuss the role of feature detectors in their visual
perception. The thalamus routed the neural impulse to the feature detectors, and these groups of
neurons organize the neural firings into a conscious visual perception of the object. Students can
identify the specific location of the feature detectors (visual cortex in the occipital lobe), but they do
not need to provide this detail to earn the point.
REF: Section- Sensation and Perception
7. ANS:
Point 1: Hypothesis: Students should develop at least one possible hypothesis related to Professor
Dement's belief. Scorable hypotheses need to include a description of a causal relationship between
the two variables stated in the question: an altered state of consciousness and an activity level in a
specific part of the brain.
Point 2: Experimental design: Students should describe at least one experiment that would test the
hypothesis described. The experimental design needs to involve at least two groups: an experimental
group and a control group (although students do not need to use these terms in their response). The
presence of the independent variable defines the difference between the experimental and control
group. (Note: Students may use the terms in points 3 through 9 in their experimental design and
score those points, or they may provide a separate explanation for each of the terms).
Point 3: Independent variable: Students need to describe at least one valid independent variable. The
independent variable should be described as the cause of the dependent variable. Students should
choose either a state of consciousness as the cause of a change in activity in a specific area of the
brain, or a change in activity in a specific area of the brain as the cause of an altered state of
consciousness.
Point 4: Dependent variable: Students need to describe at least one valid dependent variable. The
dependent variable should be described as the effect of the presence or level of an independent
variable. Students should choose either a state of consciousness as being caused by a change in
activity in a specific area of the brain, or a change in activity in a specific area of the brain as being
caused by an altered state of consciousness.
Point 5: Operational definition: Students should include at least one valid operational definition of a
variable. This operational definition should specify a clear method for measuring the chosen
variable. Usually, students will provide an operational definition for “activity in specific areas of the
brain”; that is, they will explain that using an appropriate brain scan to measure brain activity is the
operational definition of the dependent variable (see Point 6: fMRI).
Point 6: fMRI: Students should include a description of an fMRI scan in their response. This
description needs to provide details about the function of fMRI scans, that is, that fMRI scans
provide information about activity levels in specific brain structures.
Point 7: Psychoactive drugs: Students should use the term psychoactive drugs appropriately in their
response. The use of this term should indicate an understanding that psychoactive drugs change
perception and/or moods (both associated with altered states of consciousness).
Point 8: REM sleep: Students should use the REM stage of sleep in their response, demonstrating an
understanding that high levels of brain activity are associated with the REM state and that dreams
are most likely to occur during this stage of sleep.
Point 9: Hypnosis: Students can use hypnosis in their response in one of two ways:
- as an example of an altered state of consciousness that is associated with changes in levels of
brain activity (such as a reduction in levels of activity in areas of the brain associated with pain
during hypnotic pain alleviation treatment) or
- as an example of the controversy regarding hypnosis. Some studies indicate that hypnosis may
be an altered state of consciousness (which would be associated with changes in brain activity,
which may support Mr. Dement's hypothesis) while other studies indicate that hypnosis may be more
of a social phenomenon (and may not be associated with changes in brain activity, which may
complicate Mr. Dement's hypothesis).
REF: Section- States of Consciousness
8. ANS:
A:
Point 1: Unconditioned stimulus: Students should identify the alcohol itself as the unconditioned
stimulus, because it causes the unconditioned response (see Point 2). Unconditioned stimuli naturally
and automatically cause unconditioned responses without any previous conditioning.
Point 2: Unconditioned response: Students should identify one of the effects of alcohol as the
unconditioned response to the unconditioned stimulus of alcohol (e.g., a sense of well-being, relaxed
inhibitions, or any of the other effects of a depressant drug such as alcohol).
Point 3: Conditioned stimulus: Students should identify the smell of alcohol as the conditioned
stimulus. Since the smell of alcohol is paired repeatedly with the actual alcohol (the unconditioned
stimulus), it is likely to eventually elicit the unconditioned response.
Point 4: Conditioned response: Whichever effect of alcohol the student identified as the
unconditioned response should be identified as the conditioned response after it is elicited by the
conditioned stimulus. For example, if a student says that a sense of well-being is the unconditioned
response to the unconditioned stimulus of alcohol, the smell of alcohol (the conditioned stimulus) is
likely to eventually elicit the conditioned response of a sense of well-being.
Point 5: Extinction: Students should discuss how classical conditioning could be used to interrupt the
reaction described. Student responses should demonstrate an understanding of how extinction occurs
in a classical conditioning model: presentation of the conditioned stimulus (smell of alcohol) without
the unconditioned stimulus (alcohol), which, with repeated pairings, will eliminate the conditioned
response.
B:
Point 6: Tolerance: Students should explain that some psychoactive drugs produce a tolerance effect.
Drug users need to take increasing dosages of the drug to achieve the same physiological effect.
Tolerance leads to withdrawal symptoms (see Point 7).
Point 7: Withdrawal: Students should explain that any drug that produces tolerance (see Point 6)
leads to withdrawal symptoms. Drug users experience extremely negative symptoms when they are
without the drug (e.g., the shakes and night sweats).
Point 8: Negative reinforcement: Students should explain that drug addicts might use psychoactive
drugs to alleviate withdrawal symptoms (see Point 7). Student explanations should correctly use the
term negative reinforcement in this explanation. Negative reinforcement occurs when a behavior is
followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus (such as the elimination or reduction of withdrawal
symptoms when an addict uses a drug again). This negative reinforcement increases the likelihood
that the drug addict will use the drug again.
REF: Section- Learning
9. ANS:
Point 1: Population: Students should identify the intended population for the study as all college
students.
Point 2: Random sample: Students should explain that Professor Proust should use a random sample
of the intended population as participants in her study. Student responses should demonstrate an
accurate understanding of a random sample: a sample in which each person in the population has an
equal chance of being chosen. Student responses can demonstrate this understanding by stating this
definition or using an example of a random sampling method (e.g., choosing every tenth student
from an alphabetized list of college students).
Point 3: Random assignment: Students should explain that the participants in the study should be
randomly assigned to either the experimental group (which will read children's books) or control
group (which will not read children's books). Students can explain this experimental design detail
either by stating this principle specifically or by providing a plausible example of random
assignment (e.g., listing all participants alphabetically and assigning every other participant to the
experimental group).
Point 4: Semantic encoding: Students should use the concept of semantic encoding to predict that the
memories reported on the survey will most likely be personally meaningful events (because these
kinds of memories were semantically encoded, and semantic encoding increases the likelihood of
retrieving memories).
Point 5: Recall: Students should identify that the memories students write out on the survey are
products of recall, because these memories are not currently in conscious awareness (participants
recall these memories without cues, in contrast to recognizing them from a list of common
memories).
Point 6: Recognition: Students should identify that the common memories students circle on the
survey are retrieved through the process of recognition, because the retrieval process involves
participants identifying the events on the survey that match their memories.
Point 7: Retroactive interference: Students should discuss how retroactive interference could prevent
participants from retrieving some childhood memories. Students can either provide a reasonable
definition of retroactive interference (more recently encoded events interfere with the retrieval of
older memories) or by providing an example of retroactive interference (e.g., not being able to
remember your kindergarten teacher's name because your more recent memory of your fifth-grade
teacher's name interferes with your recall).
Point 8: Misinformation effect: Students should explain that the way Professor Proust asked about
childhood memories could contribute to the misinformation effect. Participants first read the list of
common memories and exposure to these “leading questions” could cause them to construct false
memories that the events actually happened to them.
REF: Section- Cognition: 7A—Memory
10. ANS:
Point 1: Babbling through telegraphic speech stages: In Part A and Part B, student examples should
show language progressing through babbling (spontaneously uttering sounds), and one word (using
sounds to convey meaning) through two-word/telegraphic speech (using words together using syntax
to convey meaning).
Point 2: Positive reinforcement: Students should give an example of language use that is positively
reinforced. This example should include a response (language use) followed by a stimulus that
increases the likelihood that the response is repeated. For example, students could discuss a child
saying “daddy,” followed by the child's father smiling at the child, and the child saying “daddy”
again.
Point 3: Shaping: Students should give an example of language use that is gradually shaped toward a
desired response through the reinforcement of progressive approximations of the desired behavior.
For example, students could explain that if a mother wants her child to say, “More milk please,” the
mother could use positive reinforcement first to condition the child to say “more,” then only
reinforce “more milk,” then finally reinforce the desired “more milk please.”
Point 4: Intermittent reinforcement: Students should give an example of language use that involves a
partial reinforcement schedule in which the desired responses are not reinforced each time they
occur. For example, students could explain that it is unlikely that a child will be reinforced each time
he or she uses language correctly but the intermittent reinforcements will still maintain the child's
correct language use.
Point 5: Language acquisition device: Students should discuss Chomsky's theorized language
acquisition device in the context of their example of language. This discussion should include the
idea that this language acquisition device is an inborn, prewired ability to acquire language that is
active during childhood.
Point 6: Tendency to overgeneralize rules of grammar: Students should include overgeneralization in
their example of language acquisition, showing a child generalizing a grammatical rule
inappropriately. The fact that most children overgeneralize grammar rules as they develop language
supports the idea that humans are born with a language acquisition device. For example, students
could explain that most children say “goed to the store” before they learn to say “went to the store”
as an example of overgeneralization.
Point 7: Universal Grammar: Students should give an example of language use that includes the idea
of universal grammar, the common grammatical building blocks that all languages share. For
example, the language acquisition example could include the idea that when children start speaking
they usually use nouns first rather than verbs or adjectives.
REF: Section- Cognition: 7B—Thinking-Problem Solving-Creativity-and Language
11. ANS:
Point 1: Automatic encoding: Students should explain that Sue most likely encoded the original
memory automatically, because the episode was unique and engaging. Her consciousness
automatically encoded details of this funny event into her memory system.
Point 2: Explicit memory: Students should explain that Sue's memory of this event is an explicit
memory, a conscious memory of factual information. Student explanations do not need to use this
exact definition in their response, but the response needs to clearly indicate that students understand
the distinction between this kind of memory and other kinds (e.g., procedural/implicit).
Point 3: Mood-congruent memory: Students should explain that this memory may have been more
difficult for Sue to recall because she was in a depressed mood. Mood-congruent memory would
predict that, while she was in a depressed mood, Sue would more likely recall more sad, depressed
memories than happy ones.
Point 4: Two-factor theory: Students should explain that, according to two-factor theory, Sue's
happier mood came from her physiological experience (smiling, feeling better) and the cognitive
label she applied to the physiological changes (happiness or humor).
Point 5: Facial feedback: Students should explain that facial-feedback research indicates that her
smile influenced her emotional experience. Facial-feedback research indicates that making the
muscle movements required to smile influences our experience of the emotion, so that smiling
actually increases the experienced emotion of happiness.
Point 6: Feel-good, do-good phenomenon: Students should explain that we are more likely to be
helpful to others when we are feeling positive. Sue's elevated mood after remembering the funny
event increased the likelihood that she would do something positive for others, such as volunteering
at the homeless shelter.
Point 7: Relative deprivation: Students should explain that when Sue remembered Rob's misfortune
her mood may have improved because Rob's situation was worse than her current situation. Research
about relative deprivation indicates that our mood is generally elevated when we see or think about
people who are in situations worse than ours, or when we think back to a time when we were in a
worse situation.
REF: Section- Motivation and Emotion: 8B—Emotions-Stress-and Health