2017 Final Exam Practice FRQ Version - Lewis Download

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2017 Final Exam Practice FRQ Version
Essay
1. Your friend Dave says: “How can you stand to study the history of psychology? Every single one of
those theories is basically the same: the brain controls our behavior.” Given the history of
psychology, evaluate Dave's claim using the following terms in their appropriate context:
•Introspection
•Psychoanalytic theory
•Behaviorism
•Humanistic psychology
•Cognitive revolution
•Cognitive dissonance
•Conformity
•Social-cultural perspective
2. Professor Hahn received a grant to study the relationship between childhood obesity and video game
playing. Answer the following questions about Professor Hahn's research study:
A. Explain how Professor Hahn could use each of the following research methods to study this topic:
• Case study
• Survey
• Naturalistic observation
B. Design an experiment Professor Hahn could use to investigate this topic, including the following
terms in the context of your design.
• Operational definition
• Independent and dependent variable
• Random assignment
C. Explain how Professor Hahn's experimental design would conform to ethical guidelines.
D. Explain how Professor Hahn would use statistics (including at least one measure of central
tendency and inferential statistics) to examine the data from the study to reach a conclusion.
3. If you stub your toe, how does the impulse travel through your nervous system allowing you to pull
your toe back and jump up and down in pain? Explain how this process occurs (including the
process of neural transmission) using the following terms in context:
• Sensory neuron
• Peripheral nervous system
• Central nervous system
• Interneuron
• Motor neuron
• Action potential
• Neurotransmitter
• Synapse
4. A patient who is admitted to the hospital after a stroke suffers from the following symptoms:
episodes of intense, unexplainable fear; difficulty speaking and reading aloud; and blindness in his
right visual field.
Part A: Using the terms below, explain why you would use these scans to investigate the patient's
brain functioning and,
• PET Scan
• MRI scan
Part B: Using the terms below, explain which brain structures you predict might have been affected
by the stroke, and why you think those brain structures were affected. (Note: Not all the brain
structures listed below were necessarily affected by the stroke. Your essay should clearly indicate
which brain structures you predict were affected and which were not.)
• Brainstem
• Amygdala
• Hypothalamus
• Occipital lobe
• Broca's area
• Angular gyrus
5. Professor Mendel, a behavior geneticist, is interested in studying the relative contributions of nature
and nurture to the personality trait of extraversion in humans.
Part A: Use the following terms to explain possible biological components of extraversion.
• Chromosomes
• Genes
• Temperament
Part B: Describe how Professor Mendel might complete a study of separated twins to investigate the
influence of nature and nurture on extraversion. In your description, explain how the research could
employ the case study, survey, and naturalistic observation methods. Be sure to explain how you
would operationally define extraversion in the description of your study.
6. Use the following terms to describe in detail how you visually perceive an object that you can see
right now. Use the terms in order to correctly describe the sequence of events involved in your
example of visual perception.
• Thalamus
• Retina
• Pupil
• Transduction
• Action potential
• Feature detector
• Excitatory neurotransmitter
7. Professor Dement believes that different states of consciousness are each associated with increased
levels of activity in specific, different parts of the brain. Develop at least one possible hypothesis
Professor Dement might want to study to test this belief and design an experiment to test the
hypothesis. Use the following terms correctly in your response.
• Independent variable
• Dependent variable
• Operational definition
• fMRI
• Psychoactive drugs
• REM sleep
• Hypnosis
8. Many people who are addicted to drugs report not being able to control themselves when their drug
of choice is available. Learning principles may help explain this lack of control and may provide
possible solutions.
A. Some people with alcohol dependence report that just the smell of alcohol creates a powerful
sense of well-being, increasing the desire to drink the alcohol. Explain this reaction using a classical
conditioning model, and describe one possible way to decrease the reaction. Use the following terms
in your answer:
• Unconditioned stimulus
• Unconditioned response
• Conditioned stimulus
• Conditioned response
• Extinction
B. In cases of long-term addiction, some users report continuing their drug use to avoid the side
effects of being without the drug. Explain this behavior using an operant conditioning model. Use
the following terms in your answer.
• Tolerance
• Withdrawal
• Negative reinforcement
9. Professor Proust, a memory researcher, designs an experiment to test the hypothesis that reading
picture books designed for children significantly enhances college students' memories of childhood.
She asks participants to write about significant childhood memories, and to circle any events they
remember from a list of common memories (such as getting lost in a store or breaking a leg, etc.).
Part A: Use the following terms to describe how Professor Proust should choose the participants and
experimental/control groups for her study:
• Population
• Random sample
• Random assignment
Part B: Use the following concepts to predict the kinds of memories participants are most likely to
write about:
• Semantic encoding
• Recall
• Recognition
• Retroactive interference
Part C: Explain how the misinformation effect might influence the accuracy of the memories
reported on the survey.
10. Language researchers agree that our language development progresses from babbling to the one-
word stage through the two-word, telegraphic speech stage. However, researchers have disagreed
about how we acquire language and move from stage to stage.
Part A: Provide an example of language acquisition that supports the claim that we acquire language
through operant conditioning. Your example should show language acquisition progressing from
babbling through telegraphic speech and should use the following terms in the correct context:
• Positive reinforcement
• Shaping
• Intermittent reinforcement
Part B: Provide an example of language acquisition that supports the claim that we acquire language
because of Chromsky's "inborn universal grammar" theory. Your example should show language
acquisition progressing from babbling through telegraphic speech and should use the following ideas
in the correct context:
• Language acquisition device
• Universal grammar
• The tendency to overgeneralize rules of grammar
11. After your AP psychology teacher announces that everyone in class passed the last test, your friend
Marco jumps up on the table and does a victory dance. When the laughter dies down, you start to
wonder why Marco is so extraverted and impulsive.
Discuss how the following concepts may or may not be useful in explaining Marco's impulsive
behavior.
• Drive-reduction theory
• Incentive theory
• Hierarchy of needs
• Instinct
• Operant conditioning
• Genetic predisposition
12. Sue was feeling a little sad and didn't feel like volunteering at the homeless shelter as she had
promised. But then she remembered that, earlier in the day, her friend Rob got his foot stuck in a
wastebasket, took one step, and fell over. When she thought about this episode, she smiled and felt a
little better. She started to feel a bit happier, so she went to the shelter to help out.
Explain how a psychologist might use the following concepts to explain how Sue remembered this
episode and the relationship between this memory, Sue's behavior, and her emotions.
• Automatic encoding
• Explicit memory
• Mood-congruent memory
• Two-factor theory
• Facial feedback
• Feel-good, do-good phenomenon
• Relative deprivation
13. Your physics teacher, Mr. Nye, challenges your group to design a plan for a bridge using five
wooden planks and three cinder blocks. You originally think of using the cinder blocks as support
under the planks, but then your group realizes they could be used as a counterweight on the end of
the planks.
Explain some of the reasoning processes your group may have used while working on this project.
Use the following concepts in your response:
• Schema
• Assimilation
• Accommodation
• Formal operations
• Algorithm
• Heuristic
• Functional fixedness
14. You are talking quietly with some friends at a restaurant when all of a sudden a new student at your
school, Dave, sits down at your table. Dave immediately starts to tell a loud, funny story to everyone
at the table while he gobbles French fries from your plate. Use the following theories to explain or
describe aspects of Dave's behavior:
• Reaction formation
• Trait theory
• Maslow's hierarchy of needs
• Reciprocal determinism
• Operant conditioning
• Drive-reduction theory
• Incentive theory
15. As you know, the Advanced Placement (AP) Psychology exam involves 100 multiple-choice
questions and two free response essay questions. The goal of the exam is to accurately measure
knowledge of psychological concepts and to communicate to colleges which students would most
likely succeed in a college-level psychology course. Each year, few students receive composite
scores of 1 and 5, and more students receive scores of 2, 3, or 4. Use the following terms to describe
how the College Board most likely developed and evaluates the AP Psychology exam.
• Recognition
• Recall
• Standardization
• Normal curve
• Reliability (test-retest reliability or split-half reliability)
• Content validity
• Predictive validity
16. The diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders involves concepts and research from other
areas of psychology. In this way, the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders is an
example of applied psychology. Identify some of the symptoms of the psychological disorders listed
below and explain how the accompanying concept relates to the symptoms or treatment of the
disorder.
• Dissociative identity disorder (DID): constructive memory
• Major depressive disorder: mood- congruent memory
• Schizophrenia: dopamine hypothesis
• Antisocial personality disorder: autonomic nervous system
17. Many treatments for psychological disorders are based on one of the following psychological
perspectives: psychoanalytic, learning, or biological. Define each of the following concepts and
explain which of the three perspectives the concept is based on.
• Electroconvulsive therapy
• Transference
• Token economy
• Systematic desensitization
• Resistance
• Psychopharmacology
18. Ken, Elizabeth, and Charlie are in charge of a week-long Chinese language summer camp. This year,
they promised the children's parents that they would try to get the children to spend at least five
hours a day practicing their Chinese: In their experience, however, campers usually prefer other
camp activities (hiking, canoeing, etc.) to language practice. Explain how Ken, Elizabeth, and
Charlie could use the psychological principles below to encourage campers to complete their five
hours of language practice per day.
• Positive reinforcement
• Negative reinforcement
• Central route persuasion
• Peripheral route persuasion
• Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
• Superordinate goal
• Conformity
• Obedience
2017 Final Exam Practice FRQ Version
Answer Section
ESSAY
1. ANS:
Point 1: Introspection: Students should demonstrate an understanding of the technique of
introspection (training participants to carefully report elements of specific sensory experiences) and
relate this technique to Dave's claim. Students could argue that it supports Dave's claim because it
focuses on the relationship between our behaviors and our inner experiences, or that it contradicts
Dave's claim because it focuses on something other than the brain's “control” of our behavior.
Point 2: Psychoanalytic theory: Students should demonstrate an understanding of psychoanalytic
theory (the idea that unconscious anxieties and desires control our behavior) and relate this theory to
Dave's claim. The explanation of this relationship should include the idea that psychoanalytic theory
refutes Dave's claim that all psychological theories are the same, because psychoanalytic theory is
unique in the way it explains and deals with unconscious aspects of the mind.
Point 3: Behaviorism: Students should demonstrate an understanding of the concept of behaviorism
(our behaviors are controlled by past conditioning). When relating behaviorism to Dave's claim,
students should discuss how behaviorism refutes the claim that our thoughts control our behaviors by
noting that behaviorists contend that past learning, not cognition, explains and predicts behavior.
Point 4: Humanistic psychology: Students should demonstrate an understanding of this perspective
and how humanists view the relationship between our motivations and behaviors. Student responses
should include the idea that humanistic psychologists believe that humans strive to overcome
obstacles in their path and that negative behaviors will improve given proper environmental
conditions and the supportive reactions of those around them.
Point 5: Cognitive revolution: Students should demonstrate an understanding of the nature of the
cognitive revolution (which emphasized that how we remember and process information influences
our behaviors). Students might explain the ways in which this supports Dave's claim, noting that
cognitive psychologists agree that our brain is a primary influence on behavior or emphasizing how
the cognitive revolution was a change in the history of psychology, refuting Dave's claim.
Point 6: Cognitive dissonance: Students should demonstrate an understanding of cognitive
dissonance (a phenomenon occurring when we change our thinking about a situation after acting in a
specific way). Students should discuss how this concept contradicts Dave's claim that all
psychological theories involve ways that thinking guides behavior, since these research findings
establish that our behaviors can influence the way we think.
Point 7: Conformity: Students should demonstrate an understanding of the social psychological
concept of conformity (the tendency to conform to the behaviors of a group). Students should
discuss how conformity research findings contradict Dave's claim, since many social psychologists
predict our behaviors can be changed through social factors regardless of our cognitive attitudes.
Point 8: Social-cultural perspective: Students should discuss how the social-cultural perspective
contradicts Dave's claim. Social-cultural researchers focus on the powerful ways in which culture
influences and predicts our behaviors, including the study of how psychological principles either
affect all humans universally regardless of culture or how the principles affect people differently in
different cultures. This research focus does not involve how the brain influences behavior.
REF: Section- Psychology's History and Approaches
2. ANS:
Point 1: Case Study: Students should note that Professor Hahn should choose one child and gather
detailed information about that child's video game habits and health (such as eating habits, weight,
and other related factors).
Point 2: Survey: Students should note that Professor Hahn should gather data from a large sample of
children representing his population of children through a survey measuring both video game
playing and obesity.
Point 3: Naturalistic observation: Students should note that Professor Hahn should gather data about
children's video game habits and health by observing behaviors in a public setting.
Point 4: Operational definition: Students should provide at least one correct operational definition
for video game playing (such as timing how long children play video games) and obesity (such as
calculating body mass index).
Point 5: Independent and dependent variables: Students should identify video game playing as the
independent variable and obesity as the dependent variable in the experimental design.
Point 6: Random assignment: Students should explain how participants could be randomly assigned
to either the experimental condition or the control condition (the conditions should differ based on
the independent variable: video game playing).
Point 7: Ethical guidelines: Students' experimental design should conform to ethical guidelines for
human participants, including accurate descriptions of how the experiment includes informed
consent, protection from harm, confidentiality, and debriefing.
Point 8: Use of Statistics: Students' explanation of how Professor Hahn would use statistics to
examine results of the experimental design they described should include at least one measure of
central tendency (mean, median, or mode) and the idea that inferential statistics would be used to
determine if the difference between the experimental group and the control group is statistically
significant.
REF: Section- Research Methods: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science
3. ANS:
(Note: Students may cover the description of neural transmission involved with the action potential,
neurotransmitter, and synapse in any of the steps in this question; they do not need to cover them in
the order of the terms in the question.)
Point 1: Sensory neuron: Students should explain that sensory neurons in the toe fire in response to
stubbing your toe.
Point 2: Peripheral nervous system: Students should explain that messages from the rest of the body
(including the sensory neuronal impulses that fired when the toe was stubbed) travel through the
peripheral nervous system on their way to the brain.
Point 3: Central nervous system: Students should explain that sensory impulses from the rest of the
body (including the message from the stubbed toe) travel up the spinal cord to the brain.
Point 4: Interneuron: Students should explain that messages travel within the brain via interneurons.
Point 5: Motor neuron: Students should explain that the brain sends messages to muscles through
motor neurons (including the message to jump up and down in pain).
Point 6: Action potential: Students should explain that electrical charges travel within neurons
during neural transmission.
Point 7: Neurotransmitter: Students should explain that neurotransmitters are released in response to
an action potential and these neurotransmitters travel to other neurons during neural transmission.
Point 8: Synapse: Students should explain that neural transmission involves neurotransmitters
flowing into the synapse, the gap between neurons, and these neurotransmitters may fire the next
neural cell.
REF: Section- Biological Bases of Behavior: 3A—Neural Processing and the Endocrine System
4. ANS:
Part A:
Point 1: PET scan: Students should explain that a PET scan might be used on this patient to identify
areas of the brain that are more or less active.
Point 2: MRI scan: Students should explain that an MRI scan might be used on this patient to
examine brain structures for possible damage or structural abnormalities resulting from the stroke.
Part B:
Point 3: Brainstem: Students should explain that the patient's brainstem likely was not affected
because none of the symptoms involve brainstem functions, such as breathing, heartbeat, or filtering
incoming stimuli.
Point 4: Amygdala: Students should explain that the patient's amygdala may have been affected
because the amygdala controls rage and fear responses.
Point 5: Hypothalamus: Students should explain that the patient's hypothalamus probably was not
affected because none of the symptoms directly involve hypothalamic functions: reward centers,
endocrine control, hunger, thirst, body temperature, or sexual behavior. Students could score this
point by explaining a possible connection between damage to the hypothalamus and the patient's fear
episodes if they clearly indicate that these feelings might be connected to endocrine control (for
example, the release of adrenaline, fight-or-flight response).
Point 6: Occipital lobe: Students should explain that the patient's occipital lobe is in his left
hemisphere was likely affected because it controls visual perception for objects in the right visual
field.
Point 7: Broca's are: Students should explain that Broca's area in the patient's brain was likely
affected because this structure controls speaking aloud.
Point 8: Angular gyrus: Students should explain that the angular gyrus in the patient's brain was
likely affected because this structure controls reading aloud.
REF: Section- Biological Bases of Behavior: 3B—The Brain
5. ANS:
Part A:
Point 1: Chromosome: Students should explain that chromosomes are chains of genetic material
(DNA) and any genetic basis for extraversion would be located on one of these chromosomes.
Point 2: Genes: Students should explain that genes are segments of DNA and are responsible for
specific traits. If extraversion has a genetic basis, one or more genes are responsible for the
expressions of repression or extraversion.
Point 3: Temperament: Students should explain that research indicates that babies are born with
relatively stable temperaments, including tendencies toward outgoing or "fearless" infants or
introverted, "shy" infants. These newborn temperaments are evidence in support of a genetic basis of
extraversion.
Part B:
Point 4: Case Study: Students should explain that the separated twin study could employ a case
study--an in-depth analysis of two identical twins separated at birth and raised separately. These twin
pairs are relatively rare, so a case study would be an efficient research method to use to gather
extensive information about these individuals.
Point 5: Survey: Students should explain that Professor Mendel would most likely want to gather
information about the separated twins' attitudes, opinions, and so on. Using the survey method would
be an efficient way of gathering these kinds of attitudinal data about twins.
Point 6: Naturalistic Observation: Students should explain that data will need to be gathered during
the separated twin study about their physical behaviors (e.g., sleep habits, food preferences, physical
habits/postures). Naturalistic observation would be an efficient way to gather data about these
behaviors.
Point 7: Operational Definition of Extraversion: Students should provide at least one reasonable
operational definition of extraversion. Possible examples include (but aren't limited to): a personality
instrument measuring the degree to which each twin is outgoing, an observational checklist of
outgoing behaviors, a survey of family members of the separated twins about their degree of
outgoingness, and so on.
REF: Section- Biological Bases of Behavior: 3C—Genetics-Evolutionary Psychology-and Behavior
6. ANS:
Point 1: Pupil: Students should describe how light reflects off the object, and some of the light
passes through the pupil into the eye.
Point 2: Retina: Students should explain that the light that passes through the pupil is eventually
reflected on the pupil, activating neurons in the retina. Students may use the terms rods and/or cones
to describe these neurons, but they do not have to use these specific terms to earn this point.
Point 3: Transduction: Students should explain that light waves that were reflected off the object are
changed into neural impulses (transduction) at the point of the retina, where neurons fire in response
to light waves. Again, students may use the terms rods and/or cones to describe these neurons, but
they do not have to use these specific terms to earn this point.
Point 4: Action potential: Students should explain that action potentials are released when neurons
fire, sending an electrical charge through the neuron. Students can go on to explain this process in
more detail (describing the role of neural structures such as dendrites and the axon.) but they do not
need to explain those details to earn the point.
Point 5: Excitatory neurotransmitter: Students should explain that excitatory neurotransmitters are
released when the action potential reaches the axon terminal, and that these neurotransmitters
increase the chances that the next neuron will fire.
Point 6: Thalamus: Students should describe the role of the thalamus in the process, specifically that
the neural message from the retina first passes through the thalamus, and that the thalamus routes the
impulse elsewhere in the brain.
Point 7: Feature detector: Students should discuss the role of feature detectors in their visual
perception. The thalamus routed the neural impulse to the feature detectors, and these groups of
neurons organize the neural firings into a conscious visual perception of the object. Students can
identify the specific location of the feature detectors (visual cortex in the occipital lobe), but they do
not need to provide this detail to earn the point.
REF: Section- Sensation and Perception
7. ANS:
Point 1: Hypothesis: Students should develop at least one possible hypothesis related to Professor
Dement's belief. Scorable hypotheses need to include a description of a causal relationship between
the two variables stated in the question: an altered state of consciousness and an activity level in a
specific part of the brain.
Point 2: Experimental design: Students should describe at least one experiment that would test the
hypothesis described. The experimental design needs to involve at least two groups: an experimental
group and a control group (although students do not need to use these terms in their response). The
presence of the independent variable defines the difference between the experimental and control
group. (Note: Students may use the terms in points 3 through 9 in their experimental design and
score those points, or they may provide a separate explanation for each of the terms).
Point 3: Independent variable: Students need to describe at least one valid independent variable. The
independent variable should be described as the cause of the dependent variable. Students should
choose either a state of consciousness as the cause of a change in activity in a specific area of the
brain, or a change in activity in a specific area of the brain as the cause of an altered state of
consciousness.
Point 4: Dependent variable: Students need to describe at least one valid dependent variable. The
dependent variable should be described as the effect of the presence or level of an independent
variable. Students should choose either a state of consciousness as being caused by a change in
activity in a specific area of the brain, or a change in activity in a specific area of the brain as being
caused by an altered state of consciousness.
Point 5: Operational definition: Students should include at least one valid operational definition of a
variable. This operational definition should specify a clear method for measuring the chosen
variable. Usually, students will provide an operational definition for “activity in specific areas of the
brain”; that is, they will explain that using an appropriate brain scan to measure brain activity is the
operational definition of the dependent variable (see Point 6: fMRI).
Point 6: fMRI: Students should include a description of an fMRI scan in their response. This
description needs to provide details about the function of fMRI scans, that is, that fMRI scans
provide information about activity levels in specific brain structures.
Point 7: Psychoactive drugs: Students should use the term psychoactive drugs appropriately in their
response. The use of this term should indicate an understanding that psychoactive drugs change
perception and/or moods (both associated with altered states of consciousness).
Point 8: REM sleep: Students should use the REM stage of sleep in their response, demonstrating an
understanding that high levels of brain activity are associated with the REM state and that dreams
are most likely to occur during this stage of sleep.
Point 9: Hypnosis: Students can use hypnosis in their response in one of two ways:
- as an example of an altered state of consciousness that is associated with changes in levels of
brain activity (such as a reduction in levels of activity in areas of the brain associated with pain
during hypnotic pain alleviation treatment) or
- as an example of the controversy regarding hypnosis. Some studies indicate that hypnosis may
be an altered state of consciousness (which would be associated with changes in brain activity,
which may support Mr. Dement's hypothesis) while other studies indicate that hypnosis may be more
of a social phenomenon (and may not be associated with changes in brain activity, which may
complicate Mr. Dement's hypothesis).
REF: Section- States of Consciousness
8. ANS:
A:
Point 1: Unconditioned stimulus: Students should identify the alcohol itself as the unconditioned
stimulus, because it causes the unconditioned response (see Point 2). Unconditioned stimuli naturally
and automatically cause unconditioned responses without any previous conditioning.
Point 2: Unconditioned response: Students should identify one of the effects of alcohol as the
unconditioned response to the unconditioned stimulus of alcohol (e.g., a sense of well-being, relaxed
inhibitions, or any of the other effects of a depressant drug such as alcohol).
Point 3: Conditioned stimulus: Students should identify the smell of alcohol as the conditioned
stimulus. Since the smell of alcohol is paired repeatedly with the actual alcohol (the unconditioned
stimulus), it is likely to eventually elicit the unconditioned response.
Point 4: Conditioned response: Whichever effect of alcohol the student identified as the
unconditioned response should be identified as the conditioned response after it is elicited by the
conditioned stimulus. For example, if a student says that a sense of well-being is the unconditioned
response to the unconditioned stimulus of alcohol, the smell of alcohol (the conditioned stimulus) is
likely to eventually elicit the conditioned response of a sense of well-being.
Point 5: Extinction: Students should discuss how classical conditioning could be used to interrupt the
reaction described. Student responses should demonstrate an understanding of how extinction occurs
in a classical conditioning model: presentation of the conditioned stimulus (smell of alcohol) without
the unconditioned stimulus (alcohol), which, with repeated pairings, will eliminate the conditioned
response.
B:
Point 6: Tolerance: Students should explain that some psychoactive drugs produce a tolerance effect.
Drug users need to take increasing dosages of the drug to achieve the same physiological effect.
Tolerance leads to withdrawal symptoms (see Point 7).
Point 7: Withdrawal: Students should explain that any drug that produces tolerance (see Point 6)
leads to withdrawal symptoms. Drug users experience extremely negative symptoms when they are
without the drug (e.g., the shakes and night sweats).
Point 8: Negative reinforcement: Students should explain that drug addicts might use psychoactive
drugs to alleviate withdrawal symptoms (see Point 7). Student explanations should correctly use the
term negative reinforcement in this explanation. Negative reinforcement occurs when a behavior is
followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus (such as the elimination or reduction of withdrawal
symptoms when an addict uses a drug again). This negative reinforcement increases the likelihood
that the drug addict will use the drug again.
REF: Section- Learning
9. ANS:
Point 1: Population: Students should identify the intended population for the study as all college
students.
Point 2: Random sample: Students should explain that Professor Proust should use a random sample
of the intended population as participants in her study. Student responses should demonstrate an
accurate understanding of a random sample: a sample in which each person in the population has an
equal chance of being chosen. Student responses can demonstrate this understanding by stating this
definition or using an example of a random sampling method (e.g., choosing every tenth student
from an alphabetized list of college students).
Point 3: Random assignment: Students should explain that the participants in the study should be
randomly assigned to either the experimental group (which will read children's books) or control
group (which will not read children's books). Students can explain this experimental design detail
either by stating this principle specifically or by providing a plausible example of random
assignment (e.g., listing all participants alphabetically and assigning every other participant to the
experimental group).
Point 4: Semantic encoding: Students should use the concept of semantic encoding to predict that the
memories reported on the survey will most likely be personally meaningful events (because these
kinds of memories were semantically encoded, and semantic encoding increases the likelihood of
retrieving memories).
Point 5: Recall: Students should identify that the memories students write out on the survey are
products of recall, because these memories are not currently in conscious awareness (participants
recall these memories without cues, in contrast to recognizing them from a list of common
memories).
Point 6: Recognition: Students should identify that the common memories students circle on the
survey are retrieved through the process of recognition, because the retrieval process involves
participants identifying the events on the survey that match their memories.
Point 7: Retroactive interference: Students should discuss how retroactive interference could prevent
participants from retrieving some childhood memories. Students can either provide a reasonable
definition of retroactive interference (more recently encoded events interfere with the retrieval of
older memories) or by providing an example of retroactive interference (e.g., not being able to
remember your kindergarten teacher's name because your more recent memory of your fifth-grade
teacher's name interferes with your recall).
Point 8: Misinformation effect: Students should explain that the way Professor Proust asked about
childhood memories could contribute to the misinformation effect. Participants first read the list of
common memories and exposure to these “leading questions” could cause them to construct false
memories that the events actually happened to them.
REF: Section- Cognition: 7A—Memory
10. ANS:
Point 1: Babbling through telegraphic speech stages: In Part A and Part B, student examples should
show language progressing through babbling (spontaneously uttering sounds), and one word (using
sounds to convey meaning) through two-word/telegraphic speech (using words together using syntax
to convey meaning).
Point 2: Positive reinforcement: Students should give an example of language use that is positively
reinforced. This example should include a response (language use) followed by a stimulus that
increases the likelihood that the response is repeated. For example, students could discuss a child
saying “daddy,” followed by the child's father smiling at the child, and the child saying “daddy”
again.
Point 3: Shaping: Students should give an example of language use that is gradually shaped toward a
desired response through the reinforcement of progressive approximations of the desired behavior.
For example, students could explain that if a mother wants her child to say, “More milk please,” the
mother could use positive reinforcement first to condition the child to say “more,” then only
reinforce “more milk,” then finally reinforce the desired “more milk please.”
Point 4: Intermittent reinforcement: Students should give an example of language use that involves a
partial reinforcement schedule in which the desired responses are not reinforced each time they
occur. For example, students could explain that it is unlikely that a child will be reinforced each time
he or she uses language correctly but the intermittent reinforcements will still maintain the child's
correct language use.
Point 5: Language acquisition device: Students should discuss Chomsky's theorized language
acquisition device in the context of their example of language. This discussion should include the
idea that this language acquisition device is an inborn, prewired ability to acquire language that is
active during childhood.
Point 6: Tendency to overgeneralize rules of grammar: Students should include overgeneralization in
their example of language acquisition, showing a child generalizing a grammatical rule
inappropriately. The fact that most children overgeneralize grammar rules as they develop language
supports the idea that humans are born with a language acquisition device. For example, students
could explain that most children say “goed to the store” before they learn to say “went to the store”
as an example of overgeneralization.
Point 7: Universal Grammar: Students should give an example of language use that includes the idea
of universal grammar, the common grammatical building blocks that all languages share. For
example, the language acquisition example could include the idea that when children start speaking
they usually use nouns first rather than verbs or adjectives.
REF: Section- Cognition: 7B—Thinking-Problem Solving-Creativity-and Language
11. ANS:
Point 1: Drive-reduction theory: Students should explain that drive-reduction theory is unlikely to be
useful in explaining Marco's impulsive behavior. Marco's enthusiasm about the entire class passing
the test is probably not related to a biological drive or homeostasis, so the drive-reduction theory
does not seem like a direct or useful motivational theory for this example.
Point 2: Incentive theory: Students should explain that Marco may experience incentives for his
behavior, that is, positive or negative stimuli that motivate our behaviors. Marco may have
experienced positive stimuli in the past for his outgoingness, so he is motivated to continue his
extraversion. (Note: This explanation may seem similar to Point 5, operant conditioning, but students
need to be more specific in the operant conditioning point.)
Point 3: Hierarchy of needs: Students should explain that Maslow's hierarchy of needs may be a
useful way of explaining Marco's reaction. Marco may have been motivated by his need for love and
belongingness, believing that dancing on the table would increase his popularity with the rest of the
class.
Point 4: Instinct: Students should explain that instinct theory is unlikely to help explain Marco's
motivation, because Marco's behavior is unrelated to fixed, unlearned, inborn patterns of behavior
that persist throughout the life span.
Point 5: Operant conditioning: Students should explain that Marco's reaction may have been
operantly conditioned in the past. Students should identify a positive reinforcer that Marco may have
received (such as laughter or approval of others based on his extraversion) in the past, which
increased the likelihood that Marco would repeat his outgoing behavior.
Point 6: Genetic predisposition: Students should discuss the possibility that Marco may be
genetically predisposed toward extraversion. Students could discuss related research findings, such
as twin studies finding that identical twins are more similar in personality than fraternal twins.
REF: Section- Motivation and Emotion: 8A—Motivation
12. ANS:
Point 1: Automatic encoding: Students should explain that Sue most likely encoded the original
memory automatically, because the episode was unique and engaging. Her consciousness
automatically encoded details of this funny event into her memory system.
Point 2: Explicit memory: Students should explain that Sue's memory of this event is an explicit
memory, a conscious memory of factual information. Student explanations do not need to use this
exact definition in their response, but the response needs to clearly indicate that students understand
the distinction between this kind of memory and other kinds (e.g., procedural/implicit).
Point 3: Mood-congruent memory: Students should explain that this memory may have been more
difficult for Sue to recall because she was in a depressed mood. Mood-congruent memory would
predict that, while she was in a depressed mood, Sue would more likely recall more sad, depressed
memories than happy ones.
Point 4: Two-factor theory: Students should explain that, according to two-factor theory, Sue's
happier mood came from her physiological experience (smiling, feeling better) and the cognitive
label she applied to the physiological changes (happiness or humor).
Point 5: Facial feedback: Students should explain that facial-feedback research indicates that her
smile influenced her emotional experience. Facial-feedback research indicates that making the
muscle movements required to smile influences our experience of the emotion, so that smiling
actually increases the experienced emotion of happiness.
Point 6: Feel-good, do-good phenomenon: Students should explain that we are more likely to be
helpful to others when we are feeling positive. Sue's elevated mood after remembering the funny
event increased the likelihood that she would do something positive for others, such as volunteering
at the homeless shelter.
Point 7: Relative deprivation: Students should explain that when Sue remembered Rob's misfortune
her mood may have improved because Rob's situation was worse than her current situation. Research
about relative deprivation indicates that our mood is generally elevated when we see or think about
people who are in situations worse than ours, or when we think back to a time when we were in a
worse situation.
REF: Section- Motivation and Emotion: 8B—Emotions-Stress-and Health
13. ANS:
Point 1: Schema: Students should describe the initial schema involved in the problem: viewing the
cinder blocks as support. The concept or framework for cinder blocks involved their typical use as a
support structure. This schema is later changed (see assimilation and accommodation below).
Point 2: Assimilation: Students should explain that initially the stimuli of boards and cinder blocks
were interpreted through the existing schema (assimilation). For example, the cinder blocks were
first interpreted as a support structure, because that was the existing schema (mental framework) for
the cinder blocks.
Point 3: Accommodation: Students should explain that the schema for the cinder blocks was changed
through the process of the problem-solving exercise. The first schema of “cinder blocks as support
structure” was changed to “cinder blocks as counterweight” when the students discovered this new
use.
Point 4: Formal operations: Students should explain that reasoning through this problem involved
hypothetical reasoning, which is typical of the formal operations stage. Younger students who are
not yet in formal operations would have more difficulty considering the hypothetical solution to this
problem.
Point 5: Algorithm: Students should explain that the group could have used an algorithm to solve
this problem, perhaps by trying every possible combination of planks and cinder blocks. This
algorithm technique would guarantee the correct answer but would be very time-consuming.
Point 6: Heuristic: Students should explain that the group likely used heuristic (mental shortcuts)
rather than algorithms to solve the problem. The group probably used their past experiences with
planks and cinder blocks to suggest likely solutions rather than testing each possible solution.
Point 7: Functional fixedness: Students should explain that functional fixedness, the tendency to
focus on typical uses of the objects (such as using the cinder blocks as support), likely hindered the
problem-solving process.
REF: Section- Developmental Psychology
14. ANS:
Point 1: Reaction formation: Students should explain that Dave's outgoing behavior may be caused
by the defense mechanism reaction formation. If Dave has unconscious feelings and anxieties about
being inadequate, not entertaining or not liked, his ego may try to reduce these unconscious negative
anxieties by causing him to react in the opposite way, like telling the loud story at the table (reaction
formation). Dave exhibits these extremely outgoing behaviors because unconsciously he is anxious
about being liked and fitting in.
Point 2: Trait theory: Students should explain that trait theorists would describe Dave's behavior by
identifying specific personality traits (categories of behavior or disposition) that describe the
behavior. Specifically, students should identify the trait of extraversion (outgoing, social behaviors)
as describing Dave's behavior well.
Point 3: Maslow's Hierarchy of needs: Students should explain that applying Maslow's hierarchy of
needs could help explain Dave's behavior. The hierarchy of needs predicts that people will act to
satisfy the next level of needs. Dave's safety and physiological needs may be satisfied, so his
outgoing behaviors may be explained by his desire to satisfy the next level of needs on the hierarchy:
belongingness and love needs. Dave may be telling funny stories to make sure he is included and
accepted by the social group. Alternatively, students could use the hierarchy of needs to explain
Dave's eating behavior: Dave was trying to satisfy his physiological need of hunger by stealing the
fries.
Point 4: Reciprocal determinism: Students should explain that Dave's behavior could be explained
through reciprocal determinism: this behavior may result from the interaction of three factors—the
behavior itself, internal cognitive factors, and environmental factors. Students need to point out that
these factors all affect one another. For example, Dave's storytelling behavior at the table (behavior)
could cause some people to laugh (environmental factor), and Dave might interpret this laughter as
positive and accepting (internal cognitive factor), which in turn encourages Dave to continue with
the story. Alternatively, students could use reciprocal determinism to explain Dave's behavior of
stealing French fries. The French fries look appetizing (environmental factors) and Dave doesn't
think you will mind if he steals some (internal cognitive factor) and this encourages him to steal the
fries (behavior). Your reaction (environmental factor) may influence whether he continues to steal
the fries.
Point 5: Operant conditioning: Students should explain that operant conditioning could explain
Dave's storytelling behavior through positive reinforcement. If the people at the table laugh at Dave's
joke, he may continue or repeat the story-telling behavior because it was rewarded with laughter.
Alternatively, students could explain Dave's fry-stealing behavior through positive reinforcement:
Dave steals a fry, is rewarded by the taste of the fry, and is likely to steal another fry because of the
positive reinforcement.
Point 6: Drive-reduction theory: Students should explain that drive-reduction theory predicts that
people's behavior is aimed at reducing physiological needs (drives). It is likely that Dave was hungry
(physiological need); he stole French fries because this physiological hunger need created an aroused
state, and Dave was motivated to steal the fries in order to reduce this drive.
Point 7: Incentive theory: Students should explain that incentive theory could explain Dave's fryeating behavior. Incentive theory explains that we are not only motivated by drives (see drivereduction theory), we are also motivated by incentives, which are positive or negative stimuli that
attract us or cause us to avoid an action. The French fries may have looked and smelled delicious
and encouraged Dave to steal the fries through this incentive.
REF: Section- Personality
15. ANS:
Point 1: Recognition: Students should explain that the College Board decided to use multiple-choice
questions, that depend on recognition, because it's important for students to be able to recognize the
correct answer from the five options on each multiple-choice question. Students can also discuss
content validity related to this point: Because they chose to use multiple-choice questions that
depend on recognition, the College Board decided that part of the definition of “knowledge of
psychological concepts” involves being able to recognize the correct answer from a series of options.
Point 2: Recall: Students should explain that the College Board decided to use free response essay
questions that depend on recall, because students also need to be able to remember and demonstrate
knowledge of some psychological concepts without “cues” or options. Students can also discuss
content validity related to this point: Because they chose to use free response essay questions that
depend on recall, the College Board decided that part of the definition of “knowledge of
psychological concepts” involves being able to recall knowledge of psychological concepts well
enough to write about them in an essay.
Point 3: Standardization: Students should explain that the College Board would have needed to test
AP exam questions on a representative sample of high school and college psychology students in
order to be able to compare scores of test-takers to this standardization group. Students can also
discuss predictive validity related to this point: The College Board could use the standardization
group of college students to compare high school test scores to college student test scores in order to
determine how well high school test scores predict how successful the high school students would be
in a college-level course.
Point 4: Normal curve: Students should explain that the distribution of composite scores on the AP
psychology exam fall approximately along the normal curve, with few students receiving scores at
either end of the distribution (scores of 1 and 5) with most scores falling in the middle (scores of 2,
3, or 4).
Point 5: Reliability: Students should explain that scores on the AP test need to be proven to be
reliable, so the College Board most likely tested reliability through either the test-retest method
(administering the test more than once to the standardization group) or the split-half method
(administering half the test items to two different groups and comparing scores).
Point 6: Content validity: Students should explain that the College Board needed to test the content
validity of the AP exam, that is, whether the test actually measures relevant psychological content.
Students can explain this by describing some likely method of testing content validity (e.g., showing
test items to college psychology professors and asking whether the items address important
psychological content) or students can explain content validity in the context of points 1 or 2 above.
Point 7: Predictive validity: Students should explain that the College Board needed to test the
predictive validity of the AP exam, that is, whether AP test scores accurately predict the grades these
students would receive in a college-level psychology course. Students can explain this by describing
some likely method of testing predictive validity (e.g., administering exam items to both high school
students and current college students in psychology courses and comparing whether students
receiving high scores on the exam receive high grades in college courses), or students can explain
predictive validity in the context of point 3 above.
REF: Section- Testing and Individual Differences
16. ANS:
Point 1: Dissociative identity disorder (DID): Students should identify the main symptom of DID as
the expression of two or more distinct identities that alternately control the person's behavior.
Point 2: Constructive memory: Students should explain that some psychologists are concerned that
constuctive memory may play a role in the increasing rates of DID diagnoses. Some research
indicates that therapists who ask leading questions may contribute to patients constructing false
memories (often of childhood trauma), eventually leading to a DID diagnosis.
Point 3: Major depressive disorder: Students should identify the main symptoms of depression as
depressed moods, lethargy, feelings of worthlessness, and loss of interest in social groups that last
two or more weeks.
Point 4: Mood-congruent memory: Students should explain that mood-congruent memory may
contribute to depression (and/or complicate treatment). Since mood-congruent memory predicts that
memories encoded during a certain mood are more easily recalled when we are in that mood again,
depressed inviduals are more likely to remember depressing events, which may contribute to the
depression and complicate talk therapy.
Point 5: Schizophrenia: Students should identify the main symptom of schizophrenia as delusions
(false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur) and/or hallucinations (perceiving sensations that do
not exist).
Point 6: Dopamine hypothesis: Students should explain that schizophrenia is associated with an
excess of receptors for dopamine, and that the brain activity associated with excess dopamine
reactions is related to positive symptoms of schizophrenia (e.g., hallucinations, delusions, and
paranoia).
Point 7: Antisocial personality disorder: Students should identify the main symptom of antisocial
personality disorder as a lack of conscience, (which contributes to antisocial behaviors such as lying,
stealing, fighting, and sexual promiscuity).
Point 8: Autonomic nervous system: Students should explain that individuals diagnosed with
antisocial personality disorder show little, or no physiological reaction to aversive events, such as
electric shocks or loud noises. This lack of arousal may lead these people toward fearless behaviors
(which may lead them into criminal activity).
REF: Section- Abnormal Psychology
17. ANS:
Point 1: Electroconvulsive therapy: Students should define electroconvulsive therapy as a technique
that involves delivering a short (20–60 second) shock to the client's brain. These shock treatments
may help alleviate depression that does not respond to other treatments. Students should also explain
that this treatment is based on the biological perspective because it assumes that depression can be
treated through the changes in the brain produced by electroconvulsive therapy.
Point 2: Transference: Students should define transference as the strong positive or negative feelings
patients may feel about the psychoanalyst that reflect similar unconscious feelings repressed from
earlier relationships. Students should also explain that this treatment is based on the psychoanalytic
perspective because it involves the impact of unconscious feelings or anxieties (the positive or
negative feelings experienced earlier) on current behavior (reaction toward the psychoanalyst).
Point 3: Token Economy: Students should define token economy as a behavior modification
technique that involves “tokens” that can be exchanged for rewards (such as candy or TV time).
Therapists give these tokens to clients when they perform desired behaviors. Students should also
explain that this treatment is based on the learning perspective because it assumes that clients'
behaviors are controlled by rewards for desired behaviors.
Point 4: Systematic desensitization: Students should define systematic desensitization as a classical
conditioning technique involving the gradual exposure of a client to feared behaviors, step-by-step,
starting with situations that cause low levels of anxiety and gradually progressing to more intense
situations. Students should also explain that this treatment is based on the learning perspective
because it assumes that clients' anxieties can be gradually reduced through exposure to each
situation.
Point 5: Resistance: Students should define resistance as episodes in which the patient omits or
forgets events, pauses, or changes the subject during discussions with the psychoanalyst. Students
should also explain that this treatment is based on the psychoanalytic perspective because the
concept of resistance depends on the idea that the patient's behavior is driven by an unconscious
desire to avoid specific thoughts or memories.
Point 6: Psychopharmacology: Students should define psychopharmacology as the study of the
effects of drugs on thinking and behavior. Students should also explain that this treatment is based
on the biological perspective because it assumes that behavior can be changed through the changes
in brain chemistry produced by psychoactive drugs.
REF: Section- Treatment of Psychological Disorders
18. ANS:
Point 1: Positive reinforcement: Students should explain a likely way that the camp leaders could use
positive reinforcement to increase language practice. The example needs to involve a stimulus (such
as awards for completing language study) and a description of how language study increases
following the addition of the stimulus (campers participate in more language study after the awards
are given).
Point 2: Negative reinforcement: Students should explain a likely way that the camp leaders could
use negative reinforcement to increase language practice. The example needs to involve a stimulus
(such as the smells involved in cleaning the camp latrine) and a description of how language study
increases following the removal of the stimulus (campers who are released from latrine cleaning
duty for completing their language study participate in more language study).
Point 3: Central route persuasion: Students should discuss how the camp leaders could explain the
positive benefits campers might receive from more language study (e.g., increased ability in the
language, cognitive benefits of learning a second language, and increased knowledge of another
world culture). Using these reasonable arguments to encourage systematic, analytical thinking about
the decision follows central route persuasion.
Point 4: Peripheral route persuasion: Students should discuss how the camp leaders could use
peripheral routes to persuade campers to study Chinese, such as making sure the person in charge of
the language study is attractive to and admired by the campers. Using this kind of incidental cue
follows peripheral route persuasion
Point 5: Foot-in-the-door phenomenon: Students should explain that the camp leaders could use the
foot-in-the-door phenomenon by getting the campers to agree to small requests first, then gradually
increasing the request over time: The camp leaders could ask campers to complete two hours of
language learning the first day, then increase the time gradually over the week-long camp
experience.
Point 6: Superordinate goal: Students should explain that a superordinate goal (a shared goal that
requires the entire group to complete) could positively influence language-learning behaviors. They
could announce that the camp will earn a respected national award for merit if each person in the
camp completes five hours a day of Chinese language study.
Point 7: Conformity: Students should explain that the camp leaders could group campers to try to
take advantage of the tendency to conform within groups. The camp leaders could place the campers
in groups, making sure that students who tend not to complete their language-learning work are
placed in a group of campers who all complete it. The reluctant camper is likely to conform to the
good work habits of the group.
Point 8: Obedience: Students should explain that the camp leaders could increase the chances that
the campers will obey their request for five hours a day of language learning by making sure that the
people giving the order (the camp leaders) are often close at hand and campers are aware of their
presence, that the camp leaders are seen as respected authority figures (possibly making campers
aware of awards or degrees earned by the leaders), and that there are no role models for defying the
request for language learning (discouraging and isolating any camper who defies the request).
REF: Section- Social Psychology