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S.F. Davis
24
Table 2.1 The cranial nerves
Number
I
II
III
Name
Olfactory
Optic
Oculomotor
Modality
Sensory
Sensory
Motor
Function
Smell
Vision
Eye movement, pupillary constriction
IV
V
Trochlear
Trigeminal
Motor
Both
VI
VII
Abducens
Facial
Motor
Both
VIII
IX
Vestibulocochlear
Glossopharyngeal
Sensory
Both
X
Vagus
Both
Eye movement
Sensation to face, motor to muscles
of mastication
Eye movement
Motor to muscles of facial expression,
autonomic input to salivary glands, taste
to anterior 2/3 of tongue
Hearing and balance
Sensation to tonsils and pharynx, motor
to stylopharyngeus, taste to posterior 2/3
of tongue, input to parotid gland
Parasympathetic to thoracic and abdominal
viscera, motor to vocal muscles
XI
XII
Spinal accessory
Hypoglossal
Motor
Motor
Motor to trapezius and sternocleidomastoid
Motor to tongue
How monitored
N/A
VEP
EMG from extraocular
muscles (except trochlea
and lateral rectus)
EMG from superior oblique
EMG from masseter
or temporalis
EMG from lateral rectus
EMG from muscles of facial
expression
BAEP
EMG from soft palate
EMG from vocal cords
(monitors recurrent
laryngeal nerve)
EMG from trapezius
EMG from tongue
End of
saccule
Anterior
semicircular duct
Ampullae
Vestibular
nerve
Lateral
Posterior
semicircular
duct
Lateral
semicircular
duct
Facial
nerve
Cochlear
nerve
Vestibular
ganglia
Anterior
Posterior ampulla
Superior
Inferior
Utricle
Ductus reuniens
Saccule
Cochlea
Spiral ganglion
Fig. 2.20 The auditory and vestibular nerves emerge from the cochlea and semicircular canals, respectively, to form
CNVIII. Note the association of the facial nerve as it travels with CNVIII through the temporal bone
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