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Student Book pages 5 – 24
Worksheet 1: The Pacific Ring of Fire
North
America
North
America
Asia
B
Asia
A
Pa c i fi c O ce a n
Pa ci fi c O cea n
South
America
South
America
Oceania
Oceania
Key
Key
Destructive plate
boundaries
Figure 1 Destructive plate margins.
Active Volcano
Supervolcano
Figure 2 Active volcanoes.
1(a) Describe the distribution of destructive plate margins in the Pacific shown in Figure 1.
(2 marks)
(b) Explain what is happening to the plates at these plate margins in the Pacific.
(3 marks)
(c) Compare the distribution of active volcanoes shown in Figure 2 with the distribution of plate margins in Figure 1.
(2 marks)
(d) Although irregular, these volcanoes often erupt violently, throwing out great clouds of volcanic ash, dust and rocks, as well as lava flows.
(i) Name the type of volcanic cone formed.
(ii) Describe its shape.
(1 mark)
(2 marks)
(iii) Describe how very big eruptions such as Krakatoa (1883) and Mount St Helens (1980) can have effects beyond the area around the volcano.
(2 marks)
2(a) Name one of the supervolcanoes marked on Figure 2. (1 mark)
(b) State two ways supervolcanoes are different from the other volcanoes in Figure 2.
(2 marks)
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© Pearson Education Ltd 2010
Student Book pages 5 – 24
Worksheet 2: L’Aquila Earthquake 2009
AL
Key
Major plate boundary
Fault lines (large cracks)
Cities
Mount Vesuvius
PS
AP
Location of strong
earthquakes since 1908
EN
NI
N
E
Rome
Strength
6.3 Richter Scale
Effects
294 dead, 1200 injured, 30 000 left homeless,
15 000 buildings destroyed / damaged
beyond repair
Responses
• Massive search and rescue/relief
operation, involving 1700 workers
L’Aquila
L’Aqvila
MO
UN
TA
NS
Naples
• Civil Protection staff brought in sniffer
dogs and heavy lifting gear
I
• The Air Force flew out the wounded
EURASIAN
TECTONIC
PLATE
• Within two days, 31 tented cities were
sheltering 18 000 people
• Railway sleeper carriages were bought
• Regional bus companies sent 70 coaches
to transport people to relatives and friends
AFRICAN
TECTONIC
PLATE
Figure 1 Tectonic activity in Italy.
• The Government set up an emergency fund
Figure 2 L’Aquila earthquake – Information.
‘Why did the
‘A few weeks ago a geologist
city’s newest hospital
warned on YouTube of an earthquake
collapse when centuries’ old stone
soon in the area around L’Aquila, based on his
buildings survived? Someone should
measurements of fault movements. The Authorities
ask the Mafia’s builders why
accused him of spreading alarm and forced him
they used sub-standard
to remove it, saying that earthquakes
concrete and iron.’
cannot be predicted.’
‘We have been feeling
tremors of weeks, and they have
been getting stronger. A severe jolt last
week led to the closing of the schools
‘In California an
for two days, but the Authorities
earthquake like this
just said it was normal
would not have killed
seismic activity.’
a single person.’
Figure 3 Comments from survivors.
Questions
1From Figure 1 state the evidence which shows that
(a) many parts of Italy are at risk from earthquakes
(b) the risk is particularly high near L’Aquila.
2(a) Explain the importance of (i) sniffer dogs (ii) chemical toilets in rescue and relief operations after an earthquake.
(b) Were the effects of, and responses to, this earthquake what you would have expected from a rich developed country? Or were they more like those in a poor developing country? Explain as fully as you can.
3(a) Describe how buildings can be made earthquake-proof.
(b) Give reasons why damage to buildings still happens in earthquakes, even in a developed country like Italy.
(c) Were the Italian Authorities correct when they said that earthquakes cannot be predicted?
© Pearson Education Ltd 2010
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