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EARTH IN MOTION:
EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES
Student Notes
Ms. Percy
CGC1D1
Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and
Volcanoes…What’s the Connection?
• What will happen if two continental plates
collide?
• What will happen if a continental plate
collides with an oceanic plate?
• What will happen if two oceanic plates
collide?
Plate Boundaries and Movement
• There are three types of plate movement
1. Convergent –
2. Divergent –
3. Transform –
The movement of the plates has the power
to both create and destroy by
Continent-Continent Collision
• Forms mountains, e.g. European Alps, Himalayas
Himalayas
Continent-Oceanic Crust Collision
• Called SUBDUCTION and creates a volcano
SUBDUCTION ZONE
• Subduction zone:
• Subduction zones are the
balance to divergent zones.
Why?
Ocean-Ocean Plate Collision
• Another type of subduction zone is when two oceanic plates
collide
• This forms a trench on the ocean floor
• The worlds deepest parts of the ocean are found along
trenches
– E.g. The Mariana Trench is 11 km deep!
Pacific Ring of Fire
Volcanoes are formed by:
- Subduction - Rifting - Hotspots
What are Hotspot Volcanoes?
• Hot mantle plumes breaching the surface in
the middle of a tectonic plate
The Hawaiian island chain are
examples of hotspot volcanoes.
Photo: Tom Pfeiffer / www.volcanodiscovery.com
The tectonic plate moves over a fixed hotspot forming a chain of
volcanoes.
The volcanoes get younger from one end to the other.
Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics…
…what’s the connection?
• As with volcanoes, earthquakes are not
randomly distributed over the globe
Figure showing
the distribution of
earthquakes
around the globe
Where do earthquakes form?
Figure showing the tectonic setting of earthquakes
Key Terms: Check Your Notes
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Convergent
Divergent
Transform
Subduction Zone
Pacific Ring of Fire
Volcano
Hot Spot Volcano
Earthquake
Why is this important anyways?