EARTH IN MOTION: EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES Student Notes Ms. Percy CGC1D1 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes…What’s the Connection? • What will happen if two continental plates collide? • What will happen if a continental plate collides with an oceanic plate? • What will happen if two oceanic plates collide? Plate Boundaries and Movement • There are three types of plate movement 1. Convergent – 2. Divergent – 3. Transform – The movement of the plates has the power to both create and destroy by Continent-Continent Collision • Forms mountains, e.g. European Alps, Himalayas Himalayas Continent-Oceanic Crust Collision • Called SUBDUCTION and creates a volcano SUBDUCTION ZONE • Subduction zone: • Subduction zones are the balance to divergent zones. Why? Ocean-Ocean Plate Collision • Another type of subduction zone is when two oceanic plates collide • This forms a trench on the ocean floor • The worlds deepest parts of the ocean are found along trenches – E.g. The Mariana Trench is 11 km deep! Pacific Ring of Fire Volcanoes are formed by: - Subduction - Rifting - Hotspots What are Hotspot Volcanoes? • Hot mantle plumes breaching the surface in the middle of a tectonic plate The Hawaiian island chain are examples of hotspot volcanoes. Photo: Tom Pfeiffer / www.volcanodiscovery.com The tectonic plate moves over a fixed hotspot forming a chain of volcanoes. The volcanoes get younger from one end to the other. Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics… …what’s the connection? • As with volcanoes, earthquakes are not randomly distributed over the globe Figure showing the distribution of earthquakes around the globe Where do earthquakes form? Figure showing the tectonic setting of earthquakes Key Terms: Check Your Notes • • • • • • • • Convergent Divergent Transform Subduction Zone Pacific Ring of Fire Volcano Hot Spot Volcano Earthquake Why is this important anyways?