Download SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Transcript
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
FUNDAMENTA ATTRIBUTION ERROR
• Def: the tendency to overemphasize personal factors and underestimate situational factors when
making attributions about the cause of another person’s behavior
• Helps us maintain the “just-world phenomenon”
• Also: Saliency bias---situational factors are less noticeable, so we focus on visible personality traits
SELF-SERVING BIAS
• Def: we take credit for our successes and blame external forces for our failures
• Helps maintain self esteem
CULTURE AND ATTRIBUTION
• Individualistic culture: emphasize independence and personal responsibility
• More likely to commit FAE
• Collectivist culture: emphasize interdependence and collective responsibility
• Less likely to FAE
ATTITUDE
• Def: a positive, neutral, or negative evaluation of a person, object, or issue
• Creates reactions to people, issues, or objects
PERSUASION/ATTITUDE CHANGE
• Central Route: focus on logical arguments, thoughtful analysis
• Peripheral Route: focus on emotional appeals
• Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon: strategy to get a person to agree to a small first request as a set-up for a
much larger request later
COGNITIVE DISSONANCE
• Def: the state of psychological tension, anxiety, and discomfort that occurs when an individual’s attitude
and behavior are inconsistent
• Think of it as a defense mechanism
• Saying/knowing one thing, but doing the opposite
THE INFLUENCE OF GROUPS
SOCIAL FACILITATION
• Def: tendency for an individual’s performance to improve when in the presence of others
SOCIAL INHIBITION
• Def: an individual’s performance declines in the presence of others
SOCIAL LOAFING
• Def: people don’t work as hard when they work in a group rather than alone
• Causes: ppl feel no personal importance; some feel they can get a free ride
DEINDIVIDUATION
• Def: the reduction of self-awareness and personal responsibility when part of a group whose members
feel anonymous
• Causes: become immersed in the group; anonymity lowers accountability (no longer responsible for
their personal actions)
• Stanford Prison Experiment
BYSTANDER EFFECT
• Def: individuals are less likely to help in an emergency when other people are present
• Called the diffusion of responsibility (someone else will do it)
• The larger the group, the more likely to experience Bystander
GROUP DECISION MAKING
GROUP POLARIZATION
• Def: a group’s main opinion becomes stronger/more extreme after an issue is discussed
GROUPTHINK
• Def: when a cohesive decision-making group ignores or dismisses reasonable alternatives
• Ways to prevent: encourage other views, get outside experts, play devil’s advocate
SOCIAL INFLUENCE
CONFORMITY
• Def: when ppl adopt the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of other members of a group
• A response to real or imagined pressure
• Asch Conformity experiments: 76% will simply agree with an incorrect majority opinion to avoid causing
problems
• Factors that promote: size of the majority; unanimity of the majority; characteristics of the majority;
difficulty of the task
OBEDIENCE
• Def: performance of an action in response to direct orders from a perceived authority
• Milgram’s Obedience Experiments: 65-70% will harm others if directed to do so (women are less likely)
• Factors that promotes: cultural values; pressure to conform
DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT OF GROUP
MEMBERS
IN-GROUP/OUT-GROUP
• In-group: those with whom you identify
• In-group bias: tendency to judge the behavior of in-group members favorably and out-group members
unfavorably
• Out-group: do not identify with
• Out-group homogeneity: to view out-group members as very similar to one another
STEREOTYPES
• Def: mental image of a group that exaggerates or oversimplifies their characteristics
• Can be positive or negative
PREJUDICE
• Def: a learned prejudgment directed toward ppl solely b/c they belong in a specific social group
• Can be positive or negative
• Social divisions and inequalities contribute
• Frustration and perceived threats intensify prejudice
DISCRIMINATION
• Def: differential treatment, usually negative, directed at members of a group
• It is an action (prejudice is the attitude)
INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION
DEF: THE POSITIVE FEELINGS TOWARD ANOTHER PERSON
FACTORS THAT PROMOTE ATTRACTION
• 1) Physical attractiveness: men place greater value on youth and physical attractiveness; women place
greater value on financial resources, maturity, and ambition
• Matching Hypothesis: a romantic pair is most likely judged by others as similar in physical attractiveness
• 2) Proximity: nearness; we make more friends among those we live and work close to; familiar ppl are
safe and approachable
• Mere exposure effect: repeated exposure increases likelihood of developing attraction
• 3) Similarity: most attracted to ppl who share our interests, values, and experiences
ROMANTIC LOVE VS. COMPANIONATE LOVE
• Romantic Love: intense feelings of attraction (typically fades after 6 to 30 months)
• Companionate Love: strong feelings of admiration, respect, and commitment; strengthened by mutual
sharing (intimacy)
AGGRESSION
DEF: BEHAVIOR THAT IS INTENDED TO CAUSE HARM
INFLUENCES
• Biological: evolutionary psychs believe humans are instinctively aggressive; testosterone is linked to
aggression
• Psychosocial: Frustration-aggression hypothesis—frustration leads to anger, anger leads to aggression;
social rejection, minimal parental control (esp by father), parental models all contribute to aggressive
tendencies
REDUCING AGGRESSION
• Superordinate goals: shared goals; Robbers Cave Experiment
• Conciliatory acts: reciprocity promotes trust
• Communication: no guarantee
Document related concepts

In-group favoritism wikipedia, lookup

Social perception wikipedia, lookup

Attribution bias wikipedia, lookup

Interpersonal attraction wikipedia, lookup

Social tuning wikipedia, lookup

False consensus effect wikipedia, lookup

Social loafing wikipedia, lookup

Relational aggression wikipedia, lookup

Belongingness wikipedia, lookup

Group dynamics wikipedia, lookup

Attitude change wikipedia, lookup

Conformity wikipedia, lookup

Impression formation wikipedia, lookup

Albert Bandura wikipedia, lookup

Popularity wikipedia, lookup

Group cohesiveness wikipedia, lookup

Social dilemma wikipedia, lookup

Attitude (psychology) wikipedia, lookup

Self-categorization theory wikipedia, lookup

Workplace aggression wikipedia, lookup