Hail Caesar! The Romans: Case Study Chapter 3 Source: ‘Giulio-cesare’ by Andreas Wahra, modifications by Wolpertinger und Phrood. Licensed under public domain via Wikimedia Commons. Denarius of Julius Caesar, 48-47 BC (RSC 18), from Pergamon Museum, Berlin OBV: Head of a goddess wearing an oak leaf wreath (Clementia? Pietas?) Note ‘LII’, indicating Caesar’s age (52) RV: Gallic military tropaion holding an oval shield and a Gallic trumpet (carnyx); an axe topped with an animal head is on the right Source: http://www.ngccoin.com/news/viewarticle.aspx?IDArticle=3035&NGC-Ancients%3A-Caesar-and-Brutus%3A-A-Brief-Survey. Julius Caesar, February-March 44 BC. AR Denarius (3.95 gm). L. Aemilius Buca, moneyer. CAESAR IM P (crescent moon) M, laureate head right; crescent behind / L AEMILIVS BVCA, Venus standing left, holding Victoria and sceptre. RSC 22. Soure: http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/sear5/s1408.html#RSC_0022. Silver denarius, R/ DICT PERPETVO CAESAR, wreathed and veiled head of Caesar right; V/ SEPVLLIVS MACER, Venus standing left, Victory in right, long vertical sceptre in left, shield at feet to right. Type: RSC 9 Source: http://www.museumsurplus.com/EidMar.htm Lifetime portrait of Julius Caesar, c. 44 BC, from Tusculum, now in Castello di Algiè , Turin Note : • Caesar’s thinning hair • His sunken cheeks • His lined neck Source: http://www.aeria.phil.uni-erlangen.de/photo_html/portrait/roemisch/republik/benannt/caesar/caesar5.jpg. Sestertius with portraits of Octavian (OBV) and Divus Julius (Caesar) (REV), c. 37 BC, now at the British Museum Seemingly overnight, Caesar has lost his bald patch, his wrinkles and his well-lined neck Source: British Museum. Labels added by A. Graham. Marble portrait of Julius Caesar c. 30-20 BC, now at Museo dell ’Opera del Duomo, Pisa Differences: •Caesar’s flowing locks •His defined but not overly sunken cheeks •His muscled but not lined neck Similarities: •His profile is maintained •His brow is furrowed with subtle lines Source: Photo by Bernini Studiati. http://ancientrome.ru/art/artworken/img.htm?id=5314. Denarius, c. 43/42 BC OBV: BRUT IMP (Brutus Imperator), minted by L. PLAET CEST (Lucius Plaetorius Cestianus) (the moneyer) REV: EID MAR (Ides of March), two daggers and a cap of liberty, referring to the liberation of the Roman people by Caesar’s assassins Source: ‘Brutus Eid Mar’ . Licensed under public domain via Wikimedia Commons.