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The genius who won the Nobel Prize for Physics, with simple equipment
barely worth RS. 300. He was the first Asian scientist to win the Nobel
Prize. He was a man of boundless curiosity and a lively sense of humor.
His spirit of inquiry and devotion to science laid the foundations for
scientific research in India. And he won honor as a scientist and
affection as a teacher and a Child Genius
Venkata Raman was born on 7th November 1888. He was also called
Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman or C.V. Raman.
Raman grew up in an atmosphere of music, Sanskrit literature and Science.
He stood first in every class and was a child genius. He joined the B.A. class of
the Presidency College and passed in the first class. He won a gold medal,
He joined the M.A. class and chose Physics (study of matter and energy) as
the main subject of study. Love of science, enthusiasm for work and the
curiosity to learn new things were natural to Raman. He used to read more
than what was taught in the class. When doubts arose he would set down
questions like 'How?' 'Why?' and 'Is this true?' in the Margin in the textbooks.
The works of the German scientist Helmhotlz (1821 - 1891) and the English
scientist Lord Raleigh (1842 - 1919) on acoustics (the study of sound)
influenced Raman. He took immense interest in the study of sound. When he
was eighteen years of age, one of his research papers was -published in the
'Philosophical Magazine' of England. Later another paper was published in the
scientific journal 'Nature'.
Raman Effect
Sometimes a rainbow appears and delights our eyes. We see in it shades of
red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. The white ray of the sun
includes all these colors. When a beam of sunlight is passed through a glass
prism a patch of these *color- bands are seen. This is called the spectrum. The
Spectro- meter is an apparatus used to study
the spectrum. Spectral lines in it are characteristic of the light passing through
the prism. A beam of light that causes a single spectral line is said to be
When a beam of monochromatic light passes through a transparent substance
(a substance which allows light to pass through it), the beam is scattered.
Raman spent a long time in the study of the scattered light.. On February 28,
1928, he observed two low intensity spectral line corresponding to the incident
mono- chromatic light. Years of his labor had borne fruit. It was clear that
though the incident light was monochromatic, the scattered light due to it, was
not monochromatic. Thus Raman's experiments discovered a phenomenon
which was lying hidden in nature.
The 16th of March 1928 is a memorable day in the history )f science. On that
day a meeting was held under the joint auspices of the South Indian Science
Association and the Science Club of Central College, Bangalore; Raman was
the Chief Guest. He announced the new phenomenon discovered by him to
the world.
The phenomenon attracted the attention of research workers all over the
world. It became famous as the 'Raman Effect'. The spectral lines in the
scattered light were known as 'Raman Lines'.
Is light wave-like or particle-like? This question has been discussed from time
to time by scientists. The Raman Effect confirmed that light was made up of
particles known as 'photons'. It helped in the study of the molecular and crystal
structures of different substances.
Deeply attracted by the secrets of sound and light, he marched ahead in
the world of science. By his achievements and self-respect he earned a
honored place for India in the world of science. He laid the foundations of a
scientific tradition in India by building up institutes for research, by publishing
science journals and by encouraging young scientists.
Truly he was the 'Grand Old Man of Indian Science.
Absorbed in experiments, it was not unusual for him to forget food and sleep.
Sometimes working late at night, he would sleep in the laboratory on one of
the tables. Raman possessed the curiosity of a little boy to know new things,
and the intuition of a great genius in understanding the secrets of Nature. The
life of this great scientist was truly the life of a great seer.
Galileo Galilei
Galileo is considered as one of the greatest contributor to the development of
Science. It is undoubtedly true that Galileo could first helped science to come out
of the trend of Aristotle. He was physicist, astronomer, and philosopher and his
best known contributions lie in the development of Telescope, first two laws of
motion and also in Astronomy. He is also considered as the father of astronomy,
father of physics and father of science.
He was born to a mathematician and musician father Vincenzo Galilei and his
mother was Giulia Ammannati in Italy. He was taught form his very early life. He
was the first scientist who followed the way of quantitative experiments in his
research where the result was based on mathematics. He had to suffer a lot from
the church for his theories.
Sir Isaac Newton
Newton was also a man of versatile quality. He was physicist, mathematician,
astronomer, alchemist, and natural philosopher in a row. His contribution in the
development of science is a special one. He I best known for his explanation of
Universal Gravitation and three laws of motion, and he was able to prove that the
reason of both the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are
controlled by the same Neutral laws. These findings could make a revolutionary
change in the development of science. In mechanical science his great
contribution was in optics. He could make a reflecting telescope. He also made
some research on light and stars. His research on General binomial Theorem
helped to be introduced today’s Calculus.
Newton was born to a farmer family but before three months of his birth his father
died and then he was brought up to his maternal grandmother as her mother
remarried. Newton could show his talent from his early life in The King’s School in
Grantham and later he joined to the Cambridge University where he took his
higher degrees.