World History Study Guide Medieval Europe Chapter 12 Vocabulary terms (please define using two or more sentences) Mayor of the palace Count Clovis Charles Martel Pepin the Short Charlemagne Treaty of Verdun Vikings Feudalism Fief Vassal Homage Tournament Chivalry Manorialism Serf Knight Lord Lady Peasant Sacrament Abbot Abbess Cardinal Lay investitutre Heresy Excommunication Friar Benedict Gergory I Grergory VII Innocent III Francis of Assisi Dominic Common law Grand jury Petit jury Middle class Alfred the Great William he Conqueror Henry II Eleanor of Aquitaine Magna Carta Philip Augustus Henry IV Short Answer Questions (complete answer should result in several sentences) 1. How did Charlemagne work to achieve European unity? How are European leaders trying to achieve the same goal in Europe today? 2. Why did the Vikings, the Magyars and the Slavs leave their homelands and invade western Europe? 3. Compare and contrast the feudal class structure in medieval Europe with the varna system in early India discussed in chapter 8. 4. Diagram the ways nobles, knights and peasants cooperated during the medieval period. 5. Imagine that you are a religious but superstitious peasant living during the Middle Ages. Invent an explanation for the famine that has struck your village. 6. How effective were the actions of the Catholic Church in trying to make all western European believe and practice one faith? 7. Judge the importance of the Magna Carta and the English Parliament in the development of representative government 8. What caused conflicts between popes and monarchs? Could they have been avoided?