* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Download Answer Key – notes-and-comprehension
Document related concepts
Social Studies 9 Chapter 8 European Contact NOTES AND COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS FOR FIRST HALF OF THE UNIT So far we have looked at: Viking exploration of North America Mercantilism as an economic philosophy Explorers John Cabot, Jacques Cartier, and Samuel du Champlain Use your Crossroads textbook to complete this work package. You will be given one period of class time and the extra-long weekend to complete the package Due: Wednesday May 25, 2016 Ch. 8 Arrival in Canada Introduction Europeans began arriving in Canada as early as the 11th C. with Leif Erikson’s settlement in Vineland (Newfoundland). Further exploration of Canada would have to wait until the imperial countries such as England, France and Spain began searching for a western shortcut to Asia through N. America. Both the Vikings and the later European colonial countries established contact with the local native populations. By the end of the 1400’s, England, Spain and France were all looking west for routes to Asia to complete with Portugal. Columbus discovered North America for the Europeans, but nobody knew or realized just how large of a continent it was. North America would eventually prove to be a major obstacle to a western route to Asia, but would, instead, provide Europe with many other riches like furs, fish and raw resources. Ch. 8 Arrival in Canada Introduction p. 216 - 221 Directions: Read pages 216-221 in your text Crossroads – A Meeting of Nations. A. Define the following terms. (1 mark each) 1. Colonize to settle and control new lands 2. Monopoly complete control of the market for a certain good or service 3. Imperialism The policy of extending control of a region or regions by one Nation. Imperialism usually involves both economic and political control. 4. Letters of Patent Royal documents that set out terms and permission 5. The years from 1450 to 1600 were Europe’s Age of Exploration European countries wanted to explore new lands and gain the legendary riches of the East. In 1492 Christopher Columbus tried to find a new trade route to Asia. Instead he found San Salvador and began to colonize the Americas. 6. Explorers hoped to reach Asia by sailing through North America! The Spanish and French, in turn, sent explorers to seek a passage to link the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific. When the French reached Canada and the St. Lawrence River, they built a commercial empire around the Fur Trade. This economic Imperialism was not unique to France. 7. The Native communities gave them access to ancient trading networks and they built the successful colony of New France. In the Maritimes it was called Acadia. These colonies became the foundation of modern Canada. 8. Long before the French, the Vikings from Scandinavia were probably the first explorers of Canada. They were farmers in their homeland, but very warlike. By the 11th century, the Vikings had colonized Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. Evidence of the Viking landings are recorded in stories known as Sagas which told of the adventures of Leif Erikson to place he called Helluland, Markland, and Vinland 9. In your own words, explain why the 1st European settlement of North America did not last. They were too few in number to sustain a settlement. They also clashed with local Native peoples and were driven off of the land as a result Columbus’s journey launched the competition among European nations to open trade 10. networks to Asia. An Italian explorer called John Cabot received permission from Henry VII in the form of a Letters Patent. This alloFowed him to seek out and occupy distant lands. 11. Cabot set out in his little ship called The Matthew with 19 crew and eventually found Newfoundland which he claimed for the King and called it New Found Land. He was astonished by the huge schools of Cod Fish. on the Grand Banks. Following his voyage, English, French, and Portuguese ships travelled to Newfoundalnd. a) Why were the Europeans interested in North America and what else did they discover? (2 marks) Wanted to find new trade routes to Asia Found schools of cod fish and other resources (furs) b) Why did John Cabot explore North America and what did the King of England want him to do with what he found? (2 marks) To gain wealth and riches To claim land/territory for England The Fur Trade and The French, English and Dutch European explorers continued to explore and lay claim to land in N. America in their search for passages and profit. Although a N.W. passage to China was never found, new trade with the peoples of N. America emerged. Trade in furs quickly became popular. At first, the French were only interested in trading profit, but by the 17th C., they had formed permanent settlements. Early on, competing interests between the French and English resulted in alliances with the local nations like the Hurons, Algonkins and the Iroquois. The Europeans quickly became involved in the affairs of the local natives, choosing sides, forming alliances and even providing arms. The French explorer and settlement founder, Champlain, sided with the Huron Empire and provided them with arms to attack their enemies the Iroquois. Champlain continued to build trading posts and continued to encourage trade between the French and the Native peoples. The French Explorers p. 221 – 225 /27 Name ________________________ Blk ______________ Date ______________________ 1. Provide an example as to how the term was used in the text. (1 marks each). 1. Archipelago: A group of Islands. Ex. And archipelago of islands 2. Scurvy: a terrible often fatal disease caused by a lack of vitamin C. i.e. 25 sailors died of scury 3. Treachery: being false, betraying someone. i.e. The Iroquois were disgusted by French treachery 2. Answer the following questions using COMPLETE SENTENCES; 1. What did Giovanni Verrazano discover in 1524? (1 mark) Discovered that North America was a continent, not a group of islands 2. Roughly, how long did it take to travel from Europe to North America? (1 mark) About 20 days What were the names of the two Iroquois brothers that Cartier kidnapped? (1 mark) Taignoagny / Domagaya 3. Obviously the cultures of 16th century France would have been different from that of North America. List four things the brothers would have encountered in France that would have been completely new to them. (4 marks for thoughtful answers) -Style of Government/ Monarchy -Archtecture -clothing/ fashion -food -language/ culture -technology 4. Why did King Francis I approve a third voyage? (1 mark) The idea of gaining more wealth and territory – competition between monarchs 5. From our view the Natives were being ripped off in the fur trade. Why did the Natives not see it that way? (2 marks ) To them, furs were available in abundance, but European goods were not. Furs were easy to trap, so it made sense. 6. The fur trade started as a way to supplement what other industry? (1 mark) Hunting/Fishing 7. Read the primary source on page 222. What does it suggest about Cartier’s attitude to the Iroquois? (3 marks) He does not think of the Iroquois as equals. He is arrogant He comes across as superior 1. Provide definitions for the following words. If you cannot find the definition in the textbook, you may use a dictionary or look-up the word on line. (1 marks each). 1. impregnable A location which an enemy cannot take by force 2. coureurs de bois runners of the woods. Independant fur traders 3. wampum bead belts, used by Native peoples to record events, also used as currency or in exchanges 4. missionary one who travels to another region to communicate a religious message 2. Answer the following questions with thought provoking answers. a) In what area were the English looking for the Northwest Passage? (1 mark) Via the St. Lawrence river and further north through the Arctic region b) What did Humphrey Gilbert threaten to do if anyone challenged his British claim of ownership of Newfoundland? (1 mark) He threatened to cut off their ears c) What country did Samuel De Champlain establish a colony for? (1 mark) France d) After the failed Port Royal settlement, where and why did Champlain attempt a settlement? (2 mark) Stadacona (Quebec City). Champlain believed the colony was still profitable, and the area provided a geographical advantage: Access to St. Lawrence River. Nestled between high, arching cliffs. e) What two native groups did he ally with? (1 mark) Algonkian / Montagnais f) What was the Order of Good Cheer? (2 marks) Champlain’s cooking club. Members would get together and cook great dinners in the winter months. Kept morale high g) Describe a dinner that would put you in a good mood. (2 marks) __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ An alliance with the Huron Empire p. 229 – 232 a) In what geographic area did the Huron’s live? (1 mark) Central Rivers of Canada: Georgian Bay b) Why did Champlain want to form an alliance with the Huron? (2 marks) ____ They had access to many trading networks/ connections. A main reason for this was due to their central location. Other groups had to come to them, and it was easy for the Huron to travel outwards if needed. c) Why would the Algonkians and Montagnais be uneasy with Champlain linking up with the Huron nation? (2 marks) Were enemies, although closey realted to the Huron. More importantly, they would be left out/ have a much smaller stake in the fur trade/ profits. Read the primary source on page 230, and answer the following questions: i) Quote the lines that suggest Jamet has made value judgments about the Hurons? (2 marks) “They have the advantage that the lake lacks no fish if they want to take the trouble to fish, but they are lazy and content themselves with on dish when they could have two. This is a bit annoying for us….It would be necessary to live with them helter skelter in their cabins, which is a strange dissatisfaction as you can imagine.” ii) As a French Catholic missionary living in the early seventeenth century, could Jamet have avoided making these value judgments? Explain. (2 marks) Yes and no. Yes because as a missionary, their job is to see the good/potential in everyone. No because their culture civilization in France is very much different to what they were exposed to. d) Describe who the Coureurs De Bois were and describe what they were supposed to do. (2 marks) They were independent fur traders sent to explore the Great Lakes region. They were to live with Native peoples and marry into their communities.