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Social Studies 9
Chapter 8
European Contact
So far we have looked at:
 Viking exploration of North America
 Mercantilism as an economic philosophy
 Explorers John Cabot, Jacques Cartier, and Samuel du
Use your Crossroads textbook to complete this work package.
You will be given one period of class time and the extra-long
weekend to complete the package
Due: Wednesday May 25, 2016
Ch. 8
Arrival in Canada
Europeans began arriving in Canada as early as the 11th C. with Leif Erikson’s settlement
in Vineland (Newfoundland).
Further exploration of Canada would have to wait until the imperial countries such as
England, France and Spain began searching for a western shortcut to Asia through N.
Both the Vikings and the later European colonial countries established contact with the
local native populations.
By the end of the 1400’s, England, Spain and France were all looking west for routes to
Asia to complete with Portugal.
Columbus discovered North America for the Europeans, but nobody knew or realized just
how large of a continent it was.
North America would eventually prove to be a major obstacle to a western route to Asia,
but would, instead, provide Europe with many other riches like furs, fish and raw
Ch. 8
Arrival in Canada
Introduction p. 216 - 221
Directions: Read pages 216-221 in your text Crossroads – A Meeting of Nations.
Define the following terms. (1 mark each)
to settle and control new lands
complete control of the market for a certain good or service
The policy of extending control of a region or regions by one
Nation. Imperialism usually involves both economic and political
Letters of Patent Royal documents that set out terms and permission
The years from 1450 to 1600 were Europe’s Age of Exploration European countries
wanted to explore new lands and gain the legendary riches of the East. In 1492 Christopher
Columbus tried to find a new trade route to Asia. Instead he found San Salvador and began to
colonize the Americas.
Explorers hoped to reach Asia by sailing through North America! The Spanish and
French, in turn, sent explorers to seek a passage to link the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific. When
the French reached Canada and the St. Lawrence River, they built a commercial empire around
the Fur Trade. This economic Imperialism was not unique to France.
The Native communities gave them access to ancient trading networks and they built the
successful colony of New France. In the Maritimes it was called Acadia. These colonies became
the foundation of modern Canada.
Long before the French, the Vikings from Scandinavia were probably the first explorers
of Canada. They were farmers in their homeland, but very warlike. By the 11th century, the
Vikings had colonized Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. Evidence of the Viking landings are
recorded in stories known as Sagas which told of the adventures of Leif Erikson to place he called
Helluland, Markland, and Vinland
In your own words, explain why the 1st European settlement of North America
did not last.
They were too few in number to sustain a settlement. They also clashed with local Native peoples
and were driven off of the land as a result
Columbus’s journey launched the competition among European nations to open trade
networks to Asia. An Italian explorer called John Cabot received permission from Henry VII in
the form of a Letters Patent. This alloFowed him to seek out and occupy distant lands.
Cabot set out in his little ship called The Matthew with 19 crew and eventually found
Newfoundland which he claimed for the King and called it New Found Land. He was astonished
by the huge schools of Cod Fish.
on the Grand Banks. Following his voyage, English, French, and Portuguese ships travelled to
a) Why were the Europeans interested in North America and what else did they discover? (2
Wanted to find new trade routes to Asia
Found schools of cod fish and other resources (furs)
b) Why did John Cabot explore North America and what did the King of England want him to do
with what he found? (2 marks)
To gain wealth and riches
To claim land/territory for England
The Fur Trade and The French, English and Dutch
European explorers continued to explore and lay claim to
land in N. America in their search for passages and
Although a N.W. passage to China was never found, new
trade with the peoples of N. America emerged. Trade in
furs quickly became popular.
At first, the French were only interested in trading
profit, but by the 17th C., they had formed permanent
Early on, competing interests between the French and
English resulted in alliances with the local nations like the
Hurons, Algonkins and the Iroquois.
The Europeans quickly became involved in the affairs of
the local natives, choosing sides, forming alliances and
even providing arms.
The French explorer and settlement founder, Champlain,
sided with the Huron Empire and provided them with
arms to attack their enemies the Iroquois.
Champlain continued to build trading posts and continued
to encourage trade between the French and the Native
The French Explorers
p. 221 – 225
Name ________________________
Blk ______________
Date ______________________
Provide an example as to how the term was used in the text. (1 marks each).
1. Archipelago: A group of Islands. Ex. And archipelago of islands
2. Scurvy: a terrible often fatal disease caused by a lack of vitamin C.
i.e. 25 sailors died of scury
3. Treachery: being false, betraying someone. i.e. The Iroquois were disgusted by
French treachery
2. Answer the following questions using COMPLETE SENTENCES;
1. What did Giovanni Verrazano discover in 1524? (1 mark)
Discovered that North America was a continent, not a group of islands
2. Roughly, how long did it take to travel from Europe to North America? (1 mark)
About 20 days
What were the names of the two Iroquois brothers that Cartier kidnapped?
(1 mark)
Taignoagny / Domagaya
3. Obviously the cultures of 16th century France would have been different from that
of North America. List four things the brothers would have encountered in France
that would have been completely new to them. (4 marks for thoughtful answers)
-Style of Government/ Monarchy
-clothing/ fashion
-language/ culture
4. Why did King Francis I approve a third voyage? (1 mark)
The idea of gaining more wealth and territory – competition between monarchs
5. From our view the Natives were being ripped off in the fur trade. Why did the
Natives not see it that way?
(2 marks )
To them, furs were available in abundance, but European goods were not. Furs were easy
to trap, so it made sense.
6. The fur trade started as a way to supplement what other industry? (1 mark)
7. Read the primary source on page 222. What does it suggest about Cartier’s
attitude to the Iroquois? (3 marks)
He does not think of the Iroquois as equals.
He is arrogant
He comes across as superior
Provide definitions for the following words. If you cannot find the definition in the textbook, you
may use a dictionary or look-up the word on line. (1 marks each).
A location which an enemy cannot take by force
coureurs de bois
runners of the woods. Independant fur traders
bead belts, used by Native peoples to record events, also used as currency
or in exchanges
one who travels to another region to communicate a religious message
Answer the following questions with thought provoking answers.
In what area were the English looking for the Northwest Passage? (1 mark)
Via the St. Lawrence river and further north through the Arctic region
What did Humphrey Gilbert threaten to do if anyone challenged his British
claim of ownership of Newfoundland? (1 mark)
He threatened to cut off their ears
What country did Samuel De Champlain establish a colony for? (1 mark)
After the failed Port Royal settlement, where and why did Champlain
attempt a settlement? (2 mark)
Stadacona (Quebec City). Champlain believed the colony was still
profitable, and the area provided a geographical advantage: Access to St.
Lawrence River. Nestled between high, arching cliffs.
What two native groups did he ally with? (1 mark)
Algonkian / Montagnais
What was the Order of Good Cheer? (2 marks)
Champlain’s cooking club. Members would get together and cook great dinners in
the winter months. Kept morale high
Describe a dinner that would put you in a good mood. (2 marks)
An alliance with the Huron Empire
p. 229 – 232
In what geographic area did the Huron’s live? (1 mark)
Central Rivers of Canada: Georgian Bay
Why did Champlain want to form an alliance with the Huron? (2 marks) ____
They had access to many trading networks/ connections. A main reason
for this was due to their central location. Other groups had to come to
them, and it was easy for the Huron to travel outwards if needed.
Why would the Algonkians and Montagnais be uneasy with Champlain
linking up with the Huron nation? (2 marks)
Were enemies, although closey realted to the Huron. More importantly, they would be
left out/ have a much smaller stake in the fur trade/ profits.
Read the primary source on page 230, and answer the following questions:
i) Quote the lines that suggest Jamet has made value judgments about the
(2 marks)
“They have the advantage that the lake lacks no fish if they want to take the trouble to
fish, but they are lazy and content themselves with on dish when they could have two.
This is a bit annoying for us….It would be necessary to live with them helter skelter in
their cabins, which is a strange dissatisfaction as you can imagine.”
As a French Catholic missionary living in the early seventeenth century,
could Jamet have avoided making these value judgments? Explain. (2 marks)
Yes and no. Yes because as a missionary, their job is to see the good/potential in
everyone. No because their culture civilization in France is very much different to what
they were exposed to.
Describe who the Coureurs De Bois were and describe what they were
supposed to do. (2 marks)
They were independent fur traders sent to explore the Great Lakes region. They were to
live with Native peoples and marry into their communities.