Download Test - Review

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

New France wikipedia, lookup

French colonization of the Americas wikipedia, lookup

Chapter Two
Exploration – Seeking new lands and
new routes to old lands.
Finished Goods – Made out of raw
materials (e.g tree > paper); sold for
profit (see mercantilism cycle)
European Fisherman – Attracted to
North America (Atlantic coast)
Reasons for Exploration
 Kings and Queens looking for a short and cheap route to
the Far East (silk & spices).
 Power struggle between the European powers (Portugal,
Spain, England, France, Holland).
 Age of Exploration (Renaissance Period/Crusades) –
Renewed interest in knowledge (maps) and technology
(ship building).
 Mercantilism – Economic theory where a country
acquires wealth by developing colonies as a source of raw
materials and markets for finished goods.
Ethnocentrism – A belief that one’s
culture is best.
Acculturation – When two cultures
meet and affect each other over a
period of time.
John Cabot
 Italian born
 Explored and claimed lands for England
 Mid-1400s
 Discovered cod fish on the coast of Newfoundland
Jacques Cartier
 French mariner who was paid by the King of France to
search for a short route to the Far East.
 Reached the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in 1534 and placed a
cross claiming “Long live the King of France.”
 Sailed up the Saint Lawrence up to Montreal in 1535.
 Established a permanent French settlement in 1541, but
the settlement failed
 When the mother country brings a separate region
under its direct control.
 To control the newly claimed lands, colonization was
 Colonies were a source of cheap raw materials (fish and
furs), cheap labour and a market for manufactured
finished goods.
 Important part of the trading theory “mercantilism.”
Fur Trading Companies
 Trading companies managed the French fur trade in
North America.
 Pierre Du Gua de Monts – Was granted a monopoly
(control all of the buying and selling) on the fur trade
in Canada in 1603.
 In 1604 , de Monts and Samuel de Champlain (his map
maker) established a French establishment in Ste. Croix
Island in Acadia.
 In 1605, Du Gua moved the settlement to Port Royal.
Charter – Kings gave permission to
explore and settle the lands.
Emigrate – Leave one country for
Scurvy – Lack of vitamin C; Natives
showed the Europeans how to cure
this (i.e. fresh food)
Samuel de Champlain
 Was called the “Father of New France” because he tried hard
to establish a permanent settlement in New France.
 He was a navigator and a map maker by profession.
 Wanted to bring Christianity to the First Nations people.
 Sometimes acted as a missionary for the Catholic Church.
 Established a settlement in Quebec in 1608.
 Created an alliance (union) with the Huron and Algonquin
against the English, Dutch and Iroquois.
 Jesuits / Black Robes
 Catholic Religion – hospitals, schools,
Company of 100 Associates
 1627 – France granted the Company of the 100
Associates a monopoly on the fur trade in New France.
 Company of 100 Associates promised to bring 4000
French Catholics to settle New France over the next 15
 Went out of business in 1663 due to war between
England and France
Company of Habitants
 In 1645, the Company of 100 Associates allowed the
Company of Habitants to take over the monopoly on
the fur trade in New France.
Algonkian People
 Lived in the eastern woodlands
 Included Algonquin, Ottawa, Micmac & Montagnais.
Huron People
 Lived in the eastern woodlands.
 Was a farming group.
 Had a long established trading network among tribes
before the European Men came.
 Champlain and the French established a trading
network and alliance with the Huron.
``Coureurs de bois” - Runners of
the Woods
 Adventurist young men of New France who would go
into the woods for furs.
 They expanded the fur trade and explored deep into
the Canadian interior.
 Increased French control over the area.
Huron Extinction
 European diseases - small pox and measles
 Lack of guns – French did not supply many unless they
gave a lot more furs
 War with the Iroquois
British Colonization
 Thirteen Colonies in USA – East coast
 Tobacco – gold and silver failed
 Jamestown 1607
 Hudson’s Bay Company – R & G – French traders
 Built trading posts at the mouths of rivers
 Rupert’s Land