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Chapter Two
Exploration – Seeking new lands and
new routes to old lands.
Finished Goods – Made out of raw
materials (e.g tree > paper); sold for
profit (see mercantilism cycle)
European Fisherman – Attracted to
North America (Atlantic coast)
Reasons for Exploration
 Kings and Queens looking for a short and cheap route to
the Far East (silk & spices).
 Power struggle between the European powers (Portugal,
Spain, England, France, Holland).
 Age of Exploration (Renaissance Period/Crusades) –
Renewed interest in knowledge (maps) and technology
(ship building).
 Mercantilism – Economic theory where a country
acquires wealth by developing colonies as a source of raw
materials and markets for finished goods.
Ethnocentrism – A belief that one’s
culture is best.
Acculturation – When two cultures
meet and affect each other over a
period of time.
John Cabot
 Italian born
 Explored and claimed lands for England
 Mid-1400s
 Discovered cod fish on the coast of Newfoundland
Jacques Cartier
 French mariner who was paid by the King of France to
search for a short route to the Far East.
 Reached the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in 1534 and placed a
cross claiming “Long live the King of France.”
 Sailed up the Saint Lawrence up to Montreal in 1535.
 Established a permanent French settlement in 1541, but
the settlement failed
Colonization
 When the mother country brings a separate region
under its direct control.
 To control the newly claimed lands, colonization was
essential.
 Colonies were a source of cheap raw materials (fish and
furs), cheap labour and a market for manufactured
finished goods.
 Important part of the trading theory “mercantilism.”
Fur Trading Companies
 Trading companies managed the French fur trade in
North America.
 Pierre Du Gua de Monts – Was granted a monopoly
(control all of the buying and selling) on the fur trade
in Canada in 1603.
 In 1604 , de Monts and Samuel de Champlain (his map
maker) established a French establishment in Ste. Croix
Island in Acadia.
 In 1605, Du Gua moved the settlement to Port Royal.
Charter – Kings gave permission to
explore and settle the lands.
Emigrate – Leave one country for
another.
Scurvy – Lack of vitamin C; Natives
showed the Europeans how to cure
this (i.e. fresh food)
Samuel de Champlain
 Was called the “Father of New France” because he tried hard
to establish a permanent settlement in New France.
 He was a navigator and a map maker by profession.
 Wanted to bring Christianity to the First Nations people.
 Sometimes acted as a missionary for the Catholic Church.
 Established a settlement in Quebec in 1608.
 Created an alliance (union) with the Huron and Algonquin
against the English, Dutch and Iroquois.
 Jesuits / Black Robes
 Catholic Religion – hospitals, schools,
Christianity
Company of 100 Associates
 1627 – France granted the Company of the 100
Associates a monopoly on the fur trade in New France.
 Company of 100 Associates promised to bring 4000
French Catholics to settle New France over the next 15
years.
 Went out of business in 1663 due to war between
England and France
Company of Habitants
 In 1645, the Company of 100 Associates allowed the
Company of Habitants to take over the monopoly on
the fur trade in New France.
Algonkian People
 Lived in the eastern woodlands
 Included Algonquin, Ottawa, Micmac & Montagnais.
Huron People
 Lived in the eastern woodlands.
 Was a farming group.
 Had a long established trading network among tribes
before the European Men came.
 Champlain and the French established a trading
network and alliance with the Huron.
`
``Coureurs de bois” - Runners of
the Woods
 Adventurist young men of New France who would go
into the woods for furs.
 They expanded the fur trade and explored deep into
the Canadian interior.
 Increased French control over the area.
`
`
Huron Extinction
 European diseases - small pox and measles
 Lack of guns – French did not supply many unless they
gave a lot more furs
 War with the Iroquois
`
`
British Colonization
 Thirteen Colonies in USA – East coast
 Tobacco – gold and silver failed
 Jamestown 1607
 Hudson’s Bay Company – R & G – French traders
 Built trading posts at the mouths of rivers
 Rupert’s Land