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Phylum = Porifera
› Scientific name = Calcareous sponge
 Common Name = Yellow Calcareous Sponge
Phylum = Porifera
› Scientific name = Spongia officinalis
 Common Name = Bath Sponge
Phylum = Cnidaria
› Scientific name = Physalia utriculus
 Common Name = Bluebottle
Phylum = Cnidoria
› Scientific name = Octocorallia alcyonacea
 Common Names = Red Sea Soft Coral
Sponges were one of the first animals living on
Earth, dating back 730 million years ago.
Most are marine (9,000+ species)
They share some characteristics with living animals
Sponges are multicellular but are thought to have
evolved from unicellular protists.
› Multicellularity
 If they are put through a fine mesh, they separate and then
come back together to form a new sponge.
Various shapes, sizes, habitats, and colors
Sponges date back to the Precambrian era
One of the first animals fossils that were
recognized were cnidarians
 The first cnidarians were composed of
soft tissue
 The earliest Cnidarian fossil discovered is
580 million years of age
› Asymmetrical
 They lack symmetry
› Acoelomate
 Do NOT have a body cavity
› Can also have radial symmetry
Pic from-
 Sessile
Flagellated cells that are found on the interior of the sponge
Firmly attaching to surfaces and not moving
The opening at the top of a sponge
Has radial symmetry
A body plan that can be divided into similar halves by
passing a plane at any along a central axis
(this website is for the works cited for this radial symmetry pic)
Cnidarians have two tissue layers
› Outer- epidermis
› Inner- gastrodermis
 In the center of the body is that gastrovascular cavity
 a hollow gut
 Medusa
› Specialized for
› Specialized a sessile
 sessile existence
 Being able to attach
firmly to a surface and
not move
Some sponges are supported by spongin
Flexible protein fibers acting as a skeleton for support
Other sponges are supported by spicules
Small-needlelike made of silicate (silicon dioxide) or calcium carbonate
The structural support in Cnidarians is
› Jelly like substance provides structural
support in water
Sessile, do not have the ability to pursue food
Filter Feed
› Choanocytes beat flagellum, pumping water in through
the ostia, pores
› Sponges filter the food out of the water
› Choanocytes trap the food in their small hair-like
› Water leaves through osculum or mouth
Water/food IN
through ostia
through osculum
Cnidocysts capture prey
› Tentacles are used to capture food
› Trigger triggers the nematocyst to be
 The nematocysts sting the prey the spine and
trap food with the fillaments
› Trap food with mucous found at mouth and
 During the premature stage
› The larva moves by means of flagella until
they find a place to attach to and thus
begin their sessile stage
› During adulthood
› A sponge has water flow in through its ostia
and go out through its osculum
Many adult cnidarians are free-floating
› In the larval stage, they are free swimmers
 Larval stage- part of the life cycle of a
No specialized systems found in
cnidarians that aid in circulation
› Circulation mainly achieved through
Does not have a respiratory system
› Takes in water (H2O) through its pores
 They have canals that move the water
throughout the sponge
Goes through diffusion
› There small body size allows oxygen to
diffuse from water through their thick
 No respiratory structures are needed
 Lungs, gills, etc.
Sponges beat the flagella of certain cells
to pump water in and out of its osculum
 Sponges have carbon dioxide and other
wastes removed quite easily
› The water moves it in and out through the
Maintain water balance by osmosis
 Diffuse water through their tissue
Sponges reproduce both asexually and
› Asexual reproduction- Budding internally and
› The new sponges are similar to their parents
Reproduce both asexually and sexually
› Asexually- budding or binary fission
 Binary fission- splitting a parent cell into two
equal parts
› Sexually- an asexual cnidarian reproduces
 Produces an organism that can reproduce
 This leads to the variation in generations
Sponges do not have a nervous system
› Lack sensory cells and nerve cells
Contains a nerve net
› Has a network of nerve fibers
 Able to communicate when overlapped
Not cephalized
The largest sponge ever measured was a
Monoraphus sponge
› It was ten feet wide!!
In the Caribbean Sea, sponges can filter
all of the water in one day!!
 Within a sponge, it is possible to find
16,000 other animals!
Over 10,000 species
› 130 of those species recorded in Sydney
Group name Cnidarian comes from the
word nettle
 The body of the a Cnidarian is a sack
with an opening, such as a medusa or a
Marriam-Webster. 2006. 7 Apr 2009
geo_time_graphic.gif." 7 Apr 2009
Bird, Jonathan.
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" ." 7 Apr 2009
Postlethwait, John, and Janet Hopson. Modern Biology.
Austin: A Harcourt Education Company, 2006.
"" 7 Apr 2009