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Animal Taxonomy
What is an animal?
Heterotrophic by __________________________
No cell __________________
Highly ___________________ cells into tissues, organs, organ systems
____________________ conduction and _____________________
_______________________ reproduction typical
Eumetazoa (true animals)
Divided into 2 groups based on ________________________ and
Radiata exhibit ___________________ symmetry
Have top/bottom but no ____________________________
Develop ______ germ layers
Phylum Cnidaria, Phylum Ctenophores only
Bilateria exhibit _____________________ symmetry
Have top/bottom, ____________________, ____________________
Develop ________ germ layers
Symmetry may _________________in different stages of life
Body cavities
Evolution of body cavities led to more ________________ animals
___________________________—animal in which _____ body cavity
develops; area between digestive tract and body walls are _____________
with cells; Phylum Platyhelminthes
_____________________________—has a _________________
filled area separating digestive tract from body wall; not completely lined
with _______________________; Phylum Nematoda
Have a ____________ filled cavity completely lined with
________________________ connect the layers and suspend the
internal organs
Split into ____ groups based on developmental patterns in cleavage,
coelom formation, and fate of blastopore
____________________ (molluscs, annelids, arthropods)
____________________ (echinoderms, chordates)
Invertebrates Phyla: Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes,
Nematoda, Annelida, Echinodermata and Arthropoda
Phylum Porifera
Sponges lack true ______________________________
Have 2 layers of cells
Filter feeders using_________________, flagellated collar cells which
create a water current
Most sponges are _________________________
 Jellyfish (medusa), corals, hydras, anemones (polyps)
_______________ symmetrical, have a ________________________
cavity and a ____________________
Have __________ layers of cells
Middle layer called __________________________
Carnivores that use tentacles armed with _________________________
to capture prey
Flatworms have a _________________________cavity and are
Planarians have light-sensitive ____________________ and centralized
______________________, found in all types of moist habitats
Tapeworms and flukes are ________________________that have a
complex life cycle involving 2 or more hosts
Annelids, Molluscs and Arthropods are ________________________
Have spiral, determinate _____________________________
Mesoderm splits to form the ____________________
Mouth forms from the _____________________________
Molluscs are soft-bodied animals, but most are protected by a hard shell
Phylum Mollusca includes snails, slugs, oysters, octopuses and squids
All molluscs have a similar body plan with three main parts:
Have a ___________________________digestive tract
______________________circulatory system
Have a _____________________system to bring water in and out of
their bodies and gills for gas exchange
___________________________ help excrete nitrogenous wastes
Cephalopods have large brains, eyes and are highly intelligent
Polyplacophora (chitons) oval-shaped marine animals encased in an armor of
(snails and slugs) Most have a single, spiraled shell, and
exhibit_________________________, which causes the animal’s anus and
mantle to end up above its head
Bivalvia (clams, oysters) have ________________________
Cephalopoda (squids, octopuses, cuttlefish, and chambered nautiluses)
beak-like______________________ surrounded by _________________
of their modified foot
Annelids are _____________________________worms
earthworms, polychaetes, leeches
Annelids have bodies composed of a series of fused rings each with
_____________________and ________________________muscles
which contract against fluid in the coelom so they can move
Annelid characteristics
Gas exchange is through their _______________
____________circulatory system with multiple _________________
_______________________excrete nitrogenous wastes through the skin
Have cerebral ____________________and a _____________nerve cord
Have a true _______________________
Have a _____________________digestive system with many parts
Nematodes are non-segmented ______________________________
Nematodes, or roundworms, are found in most aquatic habitats, in the soil,
in moist tissues of plants, and in body fluids and tissues of animals
The cylindrical bodies of nematodes are covered by a tough coat called a
Have __________________________segmentation
Different segments are specialized for different functions
Jointed appendages
Each is modified for: ________________________________________
Many _____________________structures are found at the anterior end
Organ systems
_________________________digestive system
________________circulatory system with ______________________
Excretory organs are ___________________________tubules, empty
nitrogenous waste into _________________________tract
exchange through ___________________________________that
open to the outside
Pair of _____________________nerve cords with several segmental
ganglia; ____________________________are fused into a dorsal brain
Gas exchange structures
Feathery __________________ in aquatic species
_____________________ systems in insects
_____________________________ in spiders
Exoskeleton of __________________________________
Thin and flexible at joints, thick and hard at others
Provides: _________________________________________________
Has to be shed for animal to ______________
____________________ circulatory system
Hemolymph leaves the heart and passes into ______________ which
surround ______________________________________ and reenters
the heart through pores with ____________________
Chelicerates spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites; named for their feeding
appendages, the _______________________________
Hexapoda, insects, has ______________ species than all other forms of
life combined; have several complex organ systems; many undergo
________________________________ during their lives
Crustaceans, subphylum Crustacea, typically have _________________
appendages that are extensively specialized for _____________________
___________________________ are all relatively large crustaceans and
include lobsters, crabs, crayfish, and shrimp
Echinoderms and chordates are ____________________________
Radial, determinate __________________________
Development of the coelom from ________________ of the archenteron
Formation of the anus from the ______________________________
A thin, bumpy or _________________ covers an endoskeleton of hard
Have a ____________________, a network of hydraulic canals branching
into tube feet that function in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange
and subphylum Vertebrata: Classes: Urochordata,
Cephalocordata, Myxini, Cephalospidomorphi, Chondrichthys, Osteicthies,
Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia
Four key characters of chordates:
Some species have some of these traits only during
The notochord is a longitudinal, flexible rod between the _____________
It provides ______________________ support throughout most of the
length of a chordate; most _________________ develop a jointed skeleton
Dorsal, Hollow Nerve Cord
The nerve cord of a chordate embryo develops from a plate of
________________________________that rolls into a tube dorsal to
the ________________________
The nerve cord develops into the central nervous system:
Pharyngeal Slits or Clefts
In most chordates, grooves in the pharynx called pharyngeal clefts develop
into _______________________ that open to the outside of the body
Functions of pharyngeal slits:
________________________ structures in many invertebrate chordates
_____________________________________ in aquatic vertebrates
Develop into parts of the _____________________________________
in terrestrial vertebrates
Muscular, Post-Anal Tail
Chordates have a tail posterior to the anus
In many species, the tail is ____________during embryonic development;
if not it can often be used for _____________________
Urochordates and cephalochordates
Although invertebrates, are more closely related to vertebrates
Tunicates and lancelets: ___________________________________
Jawless fish
are jawless marine craniates that have a ____________ and
axial rod of ______________________ along their back
Secrete massive quantities of ______________from glands in their skin
Derived Characters of Vertebrates
Vertebrates have the following derived characters:
_______________________ enclosing a spinal cord
An elaborate ______________________
_______________________, in aquatic forms
They are __________________ aquatic vertebrate with have
__________________________________ segments around the
notochord and part of the nerve cord
______________________of fish
Sharks, Rays, skates
Members of class Chondrichthyes have a skeleton composed primarily of
Have a _________ endoskeleton
Fishes control their ______________________ with an air sac known as
a __________________________________
Fishes breathe by drawing water over _______________ in chambers
covered by a bony flap called the _________________________
Have ________________________ flow of water and blood in their gills
Have a ___ chambered heart
Marine fish excrete ____________ from their gills and make a small
amount of __________________
Freshwater fish excrete large amounts of _____________________to
maintain osmoregulation
_______________________ allows them to feel vibrations in the water
Derived Characters of Tetrapods
Tetrapods have some specific adaptations:
_______________ limbs and __________________ with digits
___________________ for detecting airborne sounds
Amphibians: Frogs, salamanders, caecilians
amphibians have ___________________ skin that complements the
____________________ in gas exchange
Amphibian means “two lives,” referring to the metamorphosis of an aquatic
larva into a terrestrial adult; need ________________ for reproduction
Have a ____ chambered heart
Derived Characters of Amniotes
Amniotes produce the _________________________, which contains
membranes that protect the ____________________
The extraembryonic membranes have various functions
Have relatively impermeable ________________ and can use the muscles
of the rib cage to _______________ the lungs
Tuataras, lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodilians, birds, and the extinct
Reptiles have ___________________
They lay _________________________ on land
Most are _______________________________
Have a _____ chambered heart
Birds are ____________________________, but almost every feature
of their reptilian anatomy has been modified for adaptation to __________
A bird’s most obvious adaptations for flight are its _________________
and ____________________________
Bones are light-weight and _______________
Have a ____ chambered heart and ____________________flow of
oxygen through their lungs
Sea birds excrete salt through salt glands in their ________________
Mammals are amniotes that have ________________________________
Mammary glands, which produce milk, are a distinctively mammalian
Hair is another mammalian characteristic
Mammals generally have a ______________brain than other vertebrates
of equivalent size
Have a __________ chambered heart
Monotremes are a small group of ______________________mammals
consisting of echidnas and the platypus
include opossums, kangaroos, and koalas
A marsupial is born very ________________ in its development
It completes its embryonic development while nursing in a maternal pouch
called a ___________________
Eutherians (Placental Mammals)
Compared with marsupials, eutherians have a longer period of
Young eutherians complete their embryonic development within a
_______________, joined to the mother by the __________________
Derived Characters of Primates
Most primates have hands and feet adapted for ___________________
Other derived characters of primates:
A large _____________ and short _______________
_________________________________ eyes close together on the
face, providing __________________________
Well-developed ________________ care and complex
_______________ behavior
A fully opposable ____________________
Living Primates
There are ________________ main groups of living primates:
Lemurs, lorises, and pottos
Anthropoids (monkeys and apes)