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Chapter 12: Motivation and Work
 A motivation is a need or desire that serves to
energize behavior and to direct it toward a goal.
 The perspectives useful for studying motivated
behavior include:
-instinct theory
-drive-reduction theory
-arousal theory
-Abraham Maslow’s “Hierarchy of Needs”
Drives and Incentives
 Drive-reduction theory proposes that most
physiological needs create aroused psychological
states that drive us to satisfy those needs.
 The aim of drive reduction is internal stability, or
homeostasis. Furthermore, we are not only pushed
by internal drives but we are also pulled by external
Hierarchy of Motives
 At the base of the hierarchy are our physiological
needs, such as for food, water, and shelter.
 If these base needs are met, we prompted to meet
our need for safety, and then the need for love, to
belong, and to enjoy self-esteem.
 Beyond this, said Maslow, lies the highest of human
needs: to actualize one’s full potential.
Eating Disorders
 Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder in which a
normal-weight person (usually an adolescent
female) diets to become significantly underweight,
yet feels fat and is obsessed with losing weight.
 Bulimia nervosa is characterized by binge-purge
episodes of overeating, followed by vomiting,
laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
 In both disorders, challenging family settings and
weight-obsessed societal pressures, low self-esteem
and negative emotions that interact with stressful
life experiences are additional contributing factors.
The Psychology of Sex
 External stimuli, such as sexually explicit materials,
can trigger arousal in both men and women.
Sexually coercive material increases viewers’
acceptance of rape and violence toward women.
 About 95 percent of both men and women say they
have had sexual fantasies. Fantasizing about sex
does not indicate a sexual problem or
dissatisfaction. If anything, sexually active people
have more sexual fantasies.
Adolescent Sexuality
 The increase in premarital sex among teenagers has
increased the adolescent pregnancy rate.
 Only one-third of sexually active male teens use
condoms consistently.
 Sexually active teens also tend to use alcohol.
Television and movies foster sexual norms of
unprotected promiscuity.
Sexually Transmitted Infections.
 Unprotected sex has also led to increased rates of
sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as the
human papilloma virus and AIDS. Teenage girls,
because of their less mature biological development
and lower levels of protective antibodies, are
especially vulnerable to STIs.
 Attempts to protect teens through comprehensive
sex-education programs include a greater emphasis
on teen abstinence.
 Teens with high rather than average intelligence
more often delay sex. Religiosity, father presence,
and participation in service learning programs are
also predictors of sexual restraint.
Sexual Orientation
 Sexual orientation is our enduring sexual attraction
toward members of either our own sex or the other
 It appears that biological factors determine why one
person is either homosexual or heterosexual.
Sex and Human Values
 Although research on sexual motivation does not
attempt to define the personal meaning of sex in our
lives, sex research and education are not value-free.
The Need to Belong
 Social bonds boosted our ancestors’ survival rate.
Adults who formed attachments were more likely to
come together to reproduce and to stay together to
nurture their offspring to maturity.
 Our self-esteem is a gauge of how valued and
accepted we feel.
 Attachments can keep people in abusive
relationships as the fear of being alone may seem
worse than the pain of emotional or physical abuse.
Motivation at Work
 Work supports us, connects us to others, and helps
define us. When work fully engages our skills, we
experience flow. We are completely involved and
have a diminished awareness of self and time.