CHAPTER THREE GROWTH, SLAVERY, AND CONFLICT: COLONIAL AMERICA, 1710–1763 1. How did colonial culture begin to change at the start of the eighteenth century? A) Ties between the French, Spanish, and British colonies strengthened, leading to a blending of cultures. B) The increasing intensity of conflicts with Indians resulted in violence and uncertainty in day-to-day life. C) An influx of conservative, religious immigrants from Europe led to a pursuit of austerity across the colonies. D) Expanded trade with the British Empire made it possible for many colonists to live more luxuriously. E) The increasing indifference to European ways of life resulted in the formation of uniquely American customs and traditions 2. Colonial assemblies were needed to deal with such responsibilities as A) representing colonial interests to Parliament. B) collecting taxes for the crown. C) organizing local militia. D) defining colonial interests in trade. E) pursuing the policies of the royal governors. 3. The considerable powers that colonial governors possessed included all of the following except? A) the power to call or dismiss assembly sessions at will B) control over taxes and the budget C) the authority to schedule elections at any time D) the right to veto acts 4. According to the Whig theory of virtual representation, members of Parliament each represented A) the interests of landowners. B) local interests. C) his own interests. D) the will of the crown. E) the greater good. 5.Which of the thirteen colonies was the last to be settled and the only one to receive some financial assistance from the British government? A) the Carolinas B) Georgia C) Delaware D) Pennsylvania 6. Georgia proprietor James Oglethorpe primarily viewed that colony as A) a haven for assorted religious misfits from Europe. B) a chance to establish a titled aristocracy based on land ownership. C) a way to prove that prisoners could be rehabilitated. D) a laboratory for political experimentation. E) an opportunity to enrich himself. 7. The primary reason the British government was interested in chartering Georgia was to: A) earn profits for the King’s friends B) establish a colony for religious radicals C) establish a colony of small farms without slaves D) provide a buffer between South Carolina and Spanish Florida 79 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. 8. The Great Awakening was a movement that reflected a renewed interest in A) Enlightenment ideals. B) self-government. C) classical thought. D) spirituality and religion. E) the abolition of slavery. 9. Many of the American colleges founded in the eighteenth century were founded A) by American merchants with funds gained from the trade of rum and tobacco. B) by supporters of the Great Awakening for the education of new ministers. C) by supporters of the Enlightenment striving to establish a generation of American scientists. D) by elite New Englanders seeking to preserve their Puritan heritage. E) by royal governors to school colonists in British views of government and politics. 10. The Great Awakening affected colonial-era women in the colonies by A) permitting them to become ordained ministers. B) promoting many to high ranking positions within their churches. C) enabling them to establish their own congregations. D) providing a forum for them to testify publicly about their spiritual lives. E) allowing them to lead revival meetings. 11. What was one of the legacies of the Great Awakening in colonial society? A) an emphasis on self-determination B) deference to religious authorities on moral matters C) a focus on intellectualism and classical political philosophy D) a rejection of emotion and devotion in political life E) a desire to separate the issues of the church from those of the state 12. Who were the Old Lights? A) those who rejected the emotionalism of the Great Awakening B) those whom the revivalists claimed were damned C) those who wished to return to the ways of their Puritan forebears D) those who believed that terror of hell was the best motivator of spirituality E) those who found their voices as lay preachers Enlightenment thought in eighteenth-century America held that: A) all residents of the American colonies should be able to participate in the political process B) English control was impeding economic growth in the American colonies C) involvement in the slave trade was a fundamental sin against God D) the universe was created rationally and self-improvement was possible 14. Deists (Newtonianists?) GOOGLE : A) believed in a God who had created a perfect universe and then allowed it to operate according to natural laws B) insisted that where the Bible conflicted with reason, one should follow the words of the Bible rather than the false dictates of reason C) argued that the only true knowledge was religious truth, and that God was unknowable D) claimed that the best argument against the existence of God could be derived through the study of nature’s harmony and order 15. What was the middle passage? A) the time many slaves spent on Sullivan’s Island before going to be sold in auction B) the process of “seasoning” new slaves in the Caribbean C) the voyage taken by enslaved Africans to America D) the route taken from the interior to the ports of Africa E) the attempts of captured Africans to drown themselves en route to America 80 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. 16. The largest number of slaves was transported from Africa to A) the Chesapeake region. B) the lower South. C) Spanish America. D) Brazil and the Caribbean. E) Europe. 17. How did slavery differ in the upper and lower South? A) In the upper South, slaves primarily harvested rice and indigo crops, while in the lower South they primarily harvested tobacco. B) In the upper South, most slaves were female household workers, while in the lower South most were male laborers who worked in the fields. C) In the upper South, slaves mostly worked on sizable plantations, while in the lower South they mostly worked on small farms. D) In the upper South, slaves were a minority of the population, while in the lower South they made up the bulk of the population. E) In the upper South, slave owners established a task system, while in the lower South they established an overseer system. 18. How did the Great Awakening affect the institution of slavery? A) It sparked abolitionism among certain groups of colonists. B) It was used as a primary means of justifying the enslavement of Africans. C) It helped spread Christianity among slave populations. D) It informed the manner in which slave owners treated their slaves. E) It led to the construction of churches on slave plantations. 19. In what way did the slave codes of the mainland British colonies ensure the continuity of the institution? A) The codes were incorporated into the British constitution. B) The codes defined children born to slave mothers as slaves themselves. C) The codes drew upon Biblical themes to underscore their authority. D) The codes outlawed abolitionism. E) The codes required slavery to be accepted throughout the colonies. 20. All of the following were typical means of resisting the conditions of slavery EXCEPT A) running away. B) feigning illness. C) petitioning colonial governments for freedom. D) forming and maintaining a family. E) participating in African music and dance. 21. How did their enslavement affect the culture of many African Americans during the colonial era? A) Many African Americans worked to preserve their culture despite the constraints of slavery. B) Many African Americans were openly hostile toward colonial culture and traditions. C) Many African Americans did not understand colonial customs and so disregarded them. D) Many African Americans pretended to adopt colonial customs while secretly maintaining their own traditions. E) Many African Americans disregarded their traditions and adopted colonial customs in order to “fit in.” 22. Slavery and indentured servitude in colonial America differed in that most indentured servants: A) came voluntarily B) received land after completion of their terms of indenture C) were considered members of their master’s family D) were promised great financial compensation for their service 81 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. 23. Which region of colonial America was the most ethnically diverse? A) New England B) the mid-Atlantic C) the upper South D) the lower South E) the back country 24. What aspect of the New England economy grew most dramatically in the eighteenth century? A) textile manufacturing B) the fur trade C) farming D) education E) the maritime economy 25. To what does the growing power of the merchant class in the New England and mid-Atlantic colonies attest? A) the increasing importance of commerce to these regions B) the increasing influence of the British crown on these regions C) the decreasing importance of religious concerns in these regions D) the decreasing demand for slave labor in these regions E) the decreasing availability of farmland in these regions 26. In the eighteenth century, the economies of the upper and lower South were similar in that both were largely based on A) the export of slaves. B) tobacco. C) indigo. D) cash crops. E) commerce 27. How could relations between back country settlers and their neighboring Indians best be described? A) Relations were positive as back country colonists intermarried with the Indians and had children of mixed descent. B) Relations were friendly as back country settlers learned Indian customs in order to adapt to their new home. C) Relations were mutually beneficial as back country settlers established trade with the Indians to increase their wealth. D) Relations were tense and often violent as back country settlers displaced the Indians in order to build farmsteads. E) Relations were distant as back country colonists isolated themselves from the Indians. 28. What was the most important factor in France’s ability to hold its vast North American domain against Spanish and English expansion? A) good relations with the Native Americans B) the construction of fortified missions by the courerus de bois C) the presence of a large and expensive French army D) the establishment of thriving and stable communities throughout New France 29. The attempts of the British to seize Fort Duquesne were part of a larger ambition to gain control of A) Montreal. B) the Great Lakes region. C) Cape Breton Island. D) Quebec City. E) the Ohio Valley. 82 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. 30. Settlers from Paxton responded to Pontiac’s Rebellion along the frontier by A) siding with the French against the British to drive out the rebels. B) celebrating the support they received from their government. C) attacking friendly Indians who had not taken part in the rebellion. D) joining with Neolin’s forces to defeat Pontiac. E) supporting Pontiac’s rebels in the hopes of driving out the French. 31. As a result of the Treaty of Paris of 1763, A) France lost all its possessions in the New World. HINT…WHAT EXACTLY IS CONSIDERED THE NEW WORLD???? B) most of Spain's New World empire was transferred to France. C) the British gained Florida and Canada and became supreme in eastern North America. D) Louisbourg was returned to the French in exchange for a British outpost in India that the French had taken during the war. 32. How did the end of the Seven Years War aka French and Indian War affect Indians? A) They relinquished some of their territory to the Spanish colonists. B) They gained an ally in France against the British colonies. C) They formed a pan-Indian alliance to oppose British forces. D) They regained some of the ground they lost to the Americans. E) They lost a major source of arms and ammunition. 33. The Proclamation of 1763 restricted English colonists to territory A) eastward from the Appalachian Mountains. B) southward into Florida. C) southward from the Great Lakes. D) previously held by Britain and acquired from France. E) eastward from the Mississippi River. 34. What was likely to result from the interaction between population trends in the colonies and the line fixed by the Proclamation of 1763? A) Migration would likely result, as colonists decided to return to Europe. B) Compromise would likely result, as colonists abandoned farming for life in the cities. C) Peace would likely result, as colonists and Indians found ways to live in prosperity in the lands allotted to each. D) War would likely result, as Indians sought to reclaim land lost to colonists. E) Conflict would likely result, as colonists pushed for settlement in the land reserved for Indians. 35. According to the Proclamation of 1763: A) colonial paper money could not be printed B) contact between colonials and Indians was strictly forbidden C) settlers were prohibited from crossing the Appalachians D) speculators were allowed to purchase certain lands from trans-Appalachian tribes 36. A major long-term impact of the French and Indian War on the attitudes of Americans was: A) it bound the American colonists more tightly to England than ever before and made most of them realize they needed English protection from foreign powers such as the French B) it convinced most Americans to avoid further exploration and settlement of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys until after the American Revolution C) it led many colonists who had previously supported independence from England to call for moderation because they feared that the huge British military presence in the colonies could now be turned on rebellious colonists D) with the threat of the French now gone from their borders, many colonists now felt that English protection was unnecessary and they felt free to take a more independent stand toward Britain than they had taken previously 83 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Quiz/Test Study Focus: 1) Triangle Trade 2) Powers of Colonial Governors v. the Colonial Legislatures 3) Virtual Representation 4) Purposes of Georgia/James Oglethorpe 5) The Enlightenment 6) Deism (aka Newtonianism in our book) 7) The Great Awakening 8) Jonathan Edwards 9) George Whitfield 10) Old Lights v. New Lights 11) The Middle Passage 12) Slavery in upper south v. Slavery in lower south 13) The Stono Rebellion 14) Regional Characteristics (New England, Middle Atlantic, Chesapeake/Upper South, Southern/Lower South and BACK COUNTRY) 15) Causes and effects of the French and Indian War 16) Pontiac’s Rebellion 17) Paxton Boys 18) Proclamation of 1763 84 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.