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Spain and the Americas
World History/Napp
“Competition for wealth in Asia among European nations was fierce. This competition
prompted a Genoese sea captain named Christopher Columbus to make a daring voyage
for Spain in 1492. Instead of sailing south around Africa and then east, Columbus sailed
west across the Atlantic in search of an alternate trade route to Asia and its riches.
Columbus never reached Asia. Instead, he stepped onto an island in the Caribbean. That
event would bring together the peoples of Europe, Africa, and the Americas.
Thinking he had successfully reached the East Indies, Columbus called the surprised
inhabitants who greeted him, los indios. The term translated into ‘Indian,’ a word
mistakenly applied to all the native peoples of the Americas. Columbus had miscalculated
where he was. He had not reached the East Indies. Scholars believe he landed instead on
an island in the Bahamas in the Caribbean Sea. The natives there were not Indians, but a
group who called themselves the Taino. Nonetheless, Columbus claimed the island for
Spain. He named it San Salvador, or ‘Holy Savior.’
Columbus, like other explorers, was interested in gold. Finding none on San Salvador, he
explored other islands, staking his claim to each one. In early 1493, Columbus returned to
Spain. The reports he relayed about his journey delighted the Spanish monarchs. Spain’s
rulers, who had funded his first voyage, agreed to finance three more trips. The Spanish
intended to transform the islands of the Caribbean into colonies, or lands that are
controlled by another nation. Over the next two centuries, other European explorers began
sailing across the Atlantic in search of new lands to claim.
In 1500, the Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral reached the shores of modern-day
Brazil and claimed the land for his country. A year later, Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian in
the service of Portugal, also traveled along the eastern coast of South America. Upon his
return to Europe, he claimed that the land was not part of Asia, but a ‘new’ world. In 1507,
a German mapmaker named the new continent ‘America’ in honor of Amerigo Vespucci.
In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan led the boldest exploration yet. Although
Magellan was killed in the Philippines, his crew was the first to circumnavigate, or sail
around, the world in 1522.” ~ World History
Questions:
- What was Columbus’ planned alternative route to Asia?
- Why did Columbus call the people he met “los indios”? Was he correct?
- What was Columbus interested in finding and what did Spain intend to do with the land
Columbus claimed?
- Why are the Americas named in honor of Amerigo Vespucci?
- What was Ferdinand Magellan’s crew the first to do in world history?
Hernando Cortés
- Cortés was a conquistador or conqueror
- Soon after landing in Mexico, Cortés
learned of the wealthy Aztec Empire
- After marching for weeks, Cortés and his
force of roughly 600 men reached the Aztec
capital of Tenochtitlán
Francisco Pizarro
- In 1532, another conquistador, Francisco
Pizarro, marched a small force into
South America; he conquered the Incas
- Pizarro and his army of about 200 met the
Incan ruler, Atahualpa, near the city of
Cajamarca
- The Aztec emperor, Montezuma II, was
convinced at first that Cortés was a god
- Atahualpa, who commanded a force of
about 30,000, brought several thousand
mostly unarmed men for the meeting
- He agreed to give the Spanish explorer a
share of the empire’s existing gold supply
- The Spaniards waited in ambush, crushed
the Incan force, and kidnapped Atahualpa
- The conquistador was not satisfied; Cortés
admitted that he and his comrades had a
‘disease of the heart that only gold can cure’
- Atahualpa offered to fill a room once with
gold and twice with silver
- In the late spring of 1520, some of Cortés’s
men killed a number of Aztec warriors
- In June, the Aztecs rebelled against the
Spanish and drove out Cortés’s forces;
despite being outnumbered, Cortés and his
men conquered the Aztecs in 1521
- The Spaniards had muskets and cannons,
help of Native American Indians’ hostile to
the Aztecs, diseases like smallpox
- Native Americans had never been exposed
to these diseases, had no natural immunity
and many died
Identify and explain the following terms:
Hernando Cortés
Conquistador
Tenochtitlán
Montezuma II
Defeat of Aztecs
Advantages of Spaniards
Impact of Disease on Aztecs
The Great Dying
- After receiving the ransom, the Spanish
strangled the Incan king
- Demoralized, the remaining Incan force
retreated from Cajamarca
- Pizarro then marched on the Incan capital,
Cuzco; he captured it in 1533
- The Spanish settlers or peninsulares were
mostly men and as a result, relationships
between Spanish settlers and native women
occurred creating a large mestizo – or mixed
Spanish and Native American—population
- The Spanish forced Native Americans to
work within a system known as encomienda
– encomienda was a kind of Indian slavery
Francisco Pizarro
Atahualpa
Cajamarca
Death of Atahualpa
Peninsulares
Mestizos
Encomienda
Opposition to Spanish Rule
Spanish priests worked to spread Christianity in the Americas. They also pushed for
better treatment of Native Americans. Priests spoke out against the cruel treatment of
natives. In particular, they criticized the harsh pattern of labor that emerged under the
encomienda system. “There is nothing more detestable or more cruel,” Dominican monk
Bartolomé de Las Casas wrote, ‘than the tyranny which the Spaniards use toward the
Indians for the getting of pearl [riches].’
The Spanish government abolished the encomienda system in 1542. To meet the colonies’
need for labor, Las Casas suggested Africans. “The labor of one . . . [African] . . . [is] more
valuable than that of four Indians,” he said. The priest later changed his view and
denounced African slavery. However, others promoted it.
- Who was Bartolomé de Las Casas?
- What did he protest against and what did he encourage but eventually regret?
- What is most surprising about Pizarro, Atahualpa, and the Encounter?
The Spanish encomienda system in the Americas resulted in
1. the strengthening of indigenous cultures
2. political independence for the colonies
3. the exploitation of natives
4. religious freedom for the majority of peasants
- By what percentage did the native population
decrease between 1519 and 1605?
- How did the sharp decline in the native
population, due greatly to disease, affect the
Spaniards’ attempts to conquer the region?
- Why do historians call the deaths of Native
American Indians from new diseases “The Great
Dying”?
- How were African slaves connected to the
deaths of Native American Indians?
- Why did so many Native American Indians die
from new diseases introduced by Europeans?
- How did the lack of domesticated animals in
the Americas affect death rates?
Which situation was an unintended
consequence of Spain’s colonization of the
Americas?
1. establishment of a favorable balance
of trade
2. introduction of the encomienda
system
3. transmission of communicable
diseases
4. exploitation of resources in new lands
Why is Ferdinand Magellan’s voyage
considered a turning point in world history?
1. Portugal’s claims to southern Africa
were established.
2. His ship was the first to land in the
Americas.
3. One of his ships was the first to
circumnavigate Earth.
4. Britain’s control of the seas ended.
It led the way in European exploration.
1. Portugal
3. England
2. Spain
4. France
Which country is responsible for the
extensive colonial use of the encomienda
labor system?
1. England
2. France
3. the Netherlands
4. Spain
One reason Spain sponsored the first voyage
of Columbus to the west was to
1. find a more direct trade route to Asia
2. obtain military technology
3. make contact with the Empire of
Benin
4. trade in established ports in the
Americas
Which situation was an immediate cause for
the collapse of the Aztec civilization?
1. disruption of overseas trade
networks
2. conquest by foreigners
3. a series of crop failures
4. a lack of military training