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Introduction to Nutrition: An Overview -Michelle Perrone -10/18/2012 NUTRITION • Nutrition is the study of nutrients in foods and in the body. • In essence, nutrition is the science of how food nourishes the body. • When studying nutrition, you will learn which foods serve you best and you can work out ways of choosing foods, planning meals, and designing your own diet wisely. NUTRITION AND YOU • The foods you choose to eat have a cumulative effect on your body. • Therefore, the best food items for you are ones that provide energy, support growth and maintenance of strong muscles and bones, healthy skin, and sufficient blood and blood flow (and more). • This means you need foods that provide not only energy but also sufficient nutrients. NUTRIENTS • Nutrients are components of food that are indispensible to the body’s functioning. They provide energy, serve as building materials, help maintain or repair body parts, and support growth. • The nutrients include: water, carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamins, and minerals. KEY NUTRIENTS NUTRIENTS WATER CARBOHYDRATES PROTEINS VITAMINS MINERALS WATER chemical composition: Oxygen and Hydrogen in a ratio of H2O makes up approximately 60% of an adult person’s weight (80lbs of water in a 130 lb person) used in chemical structures of compounds that form cells, tissues, and organs transport vehicle for all of the nutrients and wastes universal solvent; aids in most chemical reactions in the body aids in regulating body temperature and in the cleansing of the body constantly lost from the body and must be replaced CARBOHYDRATES chemical composition: carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen energy-yielding compound composed of a single sugar (monosaccharide) or multiple sugars (polysaccharide) found in food items in the Grains food group such as breads, rice, and pasta 4 calories/gram FATS (LIPIDS) chemical composition: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen secondary energy-yielding compound organic compounds soluble in organic solvents but not in water includes triglycerides (fats and oils), phospholipids, and sterols good fats (such as oils) vs. bad fats (such as “empty calories) 9 calories/gram PROTEINS chemical composition: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen energy-yielding compound provides materials that form structures and working parts of the body tissues composed of strands of Amino Acids found in food items in the Proteins food group such as poultry, beef, fish, eggs, and beans 4 calories/gram VITAMINS chemical composition: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen do not provide energy to the body act as regulators, assisting in all body processes (digestion, movement, waste elimination, etc.) variety of vitamins found in most types of food, found in high levels in fruits and vegetables MINERALS major minerals: calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulfate do not provide energy to the body act as regulators, assisting in all body processes (digestion, movement, waste elimination, etc.) few serve as parts of body structures (ex: calcium and phosphorus: major constituents of bone) found in a variety of food items including those in the Dairy food group FOOD GROUPS • • • • • Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy • For more info on Food Groups visit: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/food-groups/ WORKS CITED "ChooseMyPlate.gov." ChooseMyPlate.gov. United States Department of Agriculture, 2010. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <http://www.choosemyplate.gov/>. Sizer, Frances, and Ellie Whitney. Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies. 11th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2008. Print.