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Colonial Period
Preaching to non-Christian
Indentured Servitude
Laborer under contract of employer for set time
Joint-Stock Company
Partnership formed by shareholders
National policy to attain favorable trade balance
Middle Passage
Forced move of African people from Africa to New World
Proprietary colony
Private land owner retain rights equal to that of a state
Royal Colony
A colony ruled directly by monarch
Salutary Neglect
British policy of avoiding enforcement of laws
A tax levied on imports for protection or revenue
Bacon’s Rebellion
He demands aggressive Native American policy
Great Awakening
Revival in response to watering down of religion
Queen Anne’s war
Spanish maintain Florida/British get Acadia/expel Cajuns
Great Migration
African Americans from the South to the urban North
King Philip’s War
Conflict between New England Indians and Colonists
King William’s War
Began with attacks by France on England frontier settlements
Pequot War
Causes elimination of Peqout as a viable polity
Salem Witchcraft Trails
Innocents being accused and convicted on bad evidence
The Starving time
The winter of 1609-10 in Jamestown
Stono Uprising
Largest slave uprising in the Colonies before Revolution
Belief in absolute standards beyond questioning
Churches descended from Puritans
Jonathan Edwards
Hard-core preacher of the First Great Awakening
Benjamin Franklin
A famous figure of the American Enlightenment
Anne Hutchinson
Religious dissenter in the Massachusetts Bay
Fled England and then Netherlands in 1620
Woman who married John Rolfe/became London celebrity
First Indians encountered in Virginia
Seeking purity/rejected Reformation
Sir Walter Raleigh
English explorer of South America/countered the Spanish
Preferred to separate from the Church of England
John Smith
Helped establish first permanent English colony
George Whitefield
Great Awakening preacher-inspirational
Roger Williams
English clergyman and colonist/expelled as critic
Charter Colony
Private enterprise colonies under charters from crown
The Chesapeake
Virginia, Maryland, and perhaps Delaware
First permanent English settlement in North America
The lower South
Carolina (splits into North and South) and Georgia
Massachusetts Bay colony
English settlement centered around today’s Boston
Middle colonies
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, and Delaware
New England
Connecticutt, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire
Dominion of New England
English union to protect against French
Fundamental orders of Connecticut
First “Constitution” set up to govern area towns.
Halfway Covenant
Partial church membership for church member’s kids
Maryland Toleration Act
Demand of religious tolerance (for Catholics)
Mayflower Compact
First governing document by Puritans
Navigation Acts
Restrained use of foreign shipping/leads to Revolution
Revolutionary Era
Adam’s “midnight Appointments”
Adams’s court appointments to strengthen federalists
Marbury v. Madison
Establishes precedent of Judicial Review
Second Continental Congress
Adopted Articles of Confederation
Sons of Liberty
Secret and then open dissent against Loyalists/British
Tripoli War
Naval presence to defend against Barbary pirates
Thomas Paine
His Common Sense advocated separation from Britain
Thomas Jefferson
Limited federal government, but got Louisiana Purchase
Citizen Edmond Genet
Diplomat who seeks US assistance vs. Britain
Albany plan of Union
Franklin’s plan to unify against French
Alien and Sedition acts
To suppress press to protect vs Quasi War vs France
George III
Lost colonies/potential Mental illness
First Continental Congress
Formed in response to Intolerable Acts-boycott
Committees of Correspondence
Create local parties vs British grievances
Whiskey Rebellion
Federal army threat reflects power/unlike Shay’s
Articles of Confederation
Power to individual colonies/couldn’t raise money
Bill of Rights
Compromise 10 to appease Anti-federalists
XZY affair
French disrespect after ship seizure causes anger
British Proclamation of 1763
British say, don’t settle beyond Appalacians
John Adams
Defended British after Boston Massacre/Alien/Sedition Acts
Undeclared naval war with France
Defend U.S. merchant ships-prompted by XYZ
First Bank of the United States
Established by Federalists for national issues
Shay’s Rebellion
Lack of federal response spurs Constitution
Franco-American Alliance
Franklin-formed alliance against British
Valley Forge
From disorder Marshall saw need for strong federalism
Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson accuses King George III
Declaratory Act
After repealing Stamp Act, British reassert power
King George’s War
British jostle for power vs. Indians, French, Spanish
Intolerable Acts
In response to Boston Tea Party/closed port of Boston
Jay Treaty
British withdraw from posts after war/trade increased
Treaty of Paris
British recognizes American Independence
French and Indian war
French and Indians vs. Colonists and British
Federalist Papers
Madison, Jay, Hamilton promote Constitution ratification
Interchangeable Parts
Parts of device to fit into another of same type
Washington’s Farwell Address
Warns against political parties/foreign alliances
Land Ordinance of 1785
Raise money by land sale/36 square mile townships
Judiciary Act of 1789
Establishes judiciary/Anti-federalists feared power
Boston Massacre
British kill 5 colonists during Boston occupation
Townshend Acts
1766-taxes on many items/profits to pay for British governors
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
N.W. Territory/vision for acquiring new states
Boston Tea Party
Americans destroy tea crates at Harbor
Stamp Act and Stamp Act congress
First British tax for revenue/protest from Colonists
Stamp and Quartering Acts
Colonists had to pay for quartering of troops
Sugar and Currency Acts
British assume control of currency
Pinckney’s Treaty
Spain allows US navigation on Mississippi
Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
Jefferson advocates Alien Acts to be nullified
Constitutional Convention of 1787
Initially just to amend Articles of Confederation
British burn Washington, D.C.
Psychological blow during War of 1812
Chesapeake Affair
British attack and board American ship
Nonintercourse act, Force act, Macon’s bill #2
Attempt to prevent ship seizure/cause of War of 1812
Battle of New Orleans
1815-Andrew Jackson/final battle of 1812
Treaty of Ghent
Ends War of 1812-restores pre-war conditions
Embargo Act
To punish British for impressments of U.S. ships
Harrison at Tippecanoe Creek
1811-defeat of Tecumseh spurs popularity
Pre-Civil War
Lowell system
Young women to streamline efficiency/working conditions
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Establishes Maine/Britain border/prevents slave trade
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
US gets over one million square miles for $15 million
Monroe Doctrine
No European interference in New World
Oregon Treaty
Polk sets boundary with Britain/jointly owned since 1818
Independent Treasury Act
Funds stay in U.S. Treasury to curb over-speculation
Charles River Bridge v. Georgia
Owners are against new bridge and lose
Erie Canal
Built with state funds-reason North won Civil War?
Workingmen’s party
First labor union-promoted free education
Whig Party
Formed in response to Jackson/federals supports expansion
Rush-Bagot Agreement
British take forts out/better relations since War of 1812
Martin Van Buren
Built up Democratic party-Aroostock War
Protestant religious sect/men and women separate
Franklin Pierce
Gadsden Purchase/Ostend Manifesto/Kan-Neb Act
James Monroe
Missouri Compromise/Florida acquisition/Monroe Doctrine
Mormon Church
Joseph Smith/to Utah under Young for isolation
William Henry Harrison
Died quickly in office/Indian war hero
Robert Fulton
Engineer/inventor of steamboat/designed 1st sub
Emerson and Thoreau
Transcendentalists-past limits of rationalism
Millard Fillmore
Supported 1850 Compromise/Perry’s Japan trade
James Buchanan
Tried to appease in order to prevent war
Adams-Onis Treaty
Got Florida/solidified border to Rockies and Pacific Ocean
Susan B. Anthony
Fought for women’s suffrage with Stanton
Antimasonic Party
Fear of secretive Masons gaining power
John Quincy Adams
Appointed Clay as Secr. of State-corrupt bargain
Trail of Tears
Cherokees removed from Georgia
South Carolina Exposition and ProtestCalhoun’s vs Tariff of Abominatiions
Reform Movements
Insane (Dix) Women’s Rights, Education (Mann)
Protective Tariff
To raise import taxes and protect US industry
Seneca Falls Convention
Stanton/Anthony for women’s suffrage
Maysville Road Veto
Jackson vs federal funds for projects
Horace Mann
Education reformer/discouraged rote learning
Mexican-American war
Conquest war of one million square miles
Indian Removal
Jackson to remove Indians West of the Mississippi
German and Irish immigration
Main sources in early-mid 1800’s
Gold Rush in California
Around S. America, through Panama, over Oregon Trail
Hartford Convention
New England Federalist secession plan
“Era of Good Feelings”
Partisan politics was abated
McCulloch v. Maryland
Federalist win/Maryland can’t resist 2nd US Bank
Gibbons v. Ogden
Federal govt. can regulate interstate trade
Compromise Tariff
Clay lowers tariffs to appease Calhoun’s SC
Cumberland Road
Federally funded road from Potomac to Ohio River
James Polk
Aggressive with Mexican War and Oregon Territory
Know-Nothing Party
Anti-immigrant party-fear of Irish
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Organized 1848 Seneca Falls for women’s suffrage
Zachary Taylor
Soldier in Indian/Mexican Wars-1850 Compromise
Utopian Communities
Creates isolation and “perfect” communities
Transatlantic cable
Rapid telegraph communication between Europe/US
Assembly line
Interchangeable to streamline efficiency
Clipper Ships
Fast multiple-masted for sailing
Second Bank of the United States
To stabilize currency/deposit federal funds
Civil War/Reconstruction/Westward Movement
Wilmot Proviso
No slavery in territory from Mexican War
John Brown
Radical abolitionist in Bleeding Kansas/Harper’s Ferry
American Antislavery Society
Garrison and Douglass leaders/become Liberty Party
Free-Soil party
Against slavery expansion-absorbed by Republicans
Tallmadge Amendment
Proposed amendment to prevent slavery in Missouri
Nat Turner
Armed uprising-killed 57 whites before being hanged
Lincoln-Douglas Debate
Free soil vs. popular sovereignty
Freeport Doctrine
Douglass is for territory voting-popular sovereignty
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Slaves could never be citizens-must return slaves
“Bleeding Kansas”
Conflict between free staters-anti-slavery border ruffians
Missouri Compromise
Missouri slave/Maine Free/no slavery north of 36/30 line
Ostend Manifesto
Indicated US interest in Cuba/protested by Free Soilers
Fugitive Slave Act
1850-increases Northern fear of Southern Slaveocracy
Uncle Tom’s Cabin published
Stowe reinforces Southern stereotypes of North
Liberty Party
From American Anti-Slavery Society/Republicans absorb it
Kansas-Nebraska Act-1854
Popular sovereignty/repeals 1820 compromise
Republican Party
Free Soil/Free Labor/Free Speech/Free Land
Union Pacific joined/ transcontinental line
Irish from East-Chinese from West were key
Morrill Land Grant Act
Allows creation of land grant college
Trent Affair
U.S intercepts Confederates on British ships, releases sailors
Standard Oil
Produce and refine and market oil/Rockefeller
Emancipation Proclamation
Follows Antietam-slaves free in seceded states
Confiscation Act
Permitted seizure of any slave used by Confederacy
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Equal treatment in public facilities
Command of the Army Act
Defends Confederacy-lacked central control
Compromise of 1850
Clay’s-California’s free, but Fugitive Slaves returned
Compromise of 1877
Republican Hayes as Pres with troop removal from South
Military Reconstruction Act
South divided into 5 districts with Congress Reconstruction
Black codes
Southern states restrict civil rights/backlash to Congress
Confederate States of America
Need federal government power but rebelled
Brooklyn Bridge
Over a mile connecting Brooklyn and Manhattan
“Boss” Tweed
Leader of New York Tammany Hall/support immigrants
National Labor Union
First labor union/favored arbitration over strikes
Abraham Lincoln
Made necessary compromises during Civil War
Ku Klux Klan
Initially for white supremacy/cropped up in ‘20’s
Chester Arthur
Passed Pendleton Act vs patronage after Garfield death
Homestead Act
160 acres of land/improve land within 5 years
Lincoln’s Proclamation of amnesty and Reconstruction
Wartime pardon to those loyal to union
Seventh Day Adventist Church
Trinity and scripture infallibility/Saturday=Sabath
Tenure of Office Act
Radical Republicans demand approval of President’s cabinet
Andrew Johnson
“Forgive” South and opposed Radical reconstruction
Rutherford B. Hayes
Won in controversial election/ended Reconstruction
Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce
1877 flight and fight from US army/tribe saved L&Clark
Bradwell v. Illinois
Allowed for job discrimination vs. women
Civil Service Commission
Enforced Pendleton Act vs patronage after Garfield death
Elizabeth Blackwell
First female doctor/for abolition and women’s rights
South Carolina Ordinance of notification
Secession upon nomination of Lincoln
Sioux Wars
Most organized resistance in Northern plains to US
Amnesty Act
Voting/office-holding restrictions from ex-Confederates
Sherman’s March through Georgia
Total war-lays farms/cities in South in ruins
Freedmen’s Bureau
First welfare agency/help transition from slavery
Seward Purchase of Alaska
Ridiculed as “Seward’s icebox”-1.9 cents per acre
The Grange Movement
Farmers protest against railroad monopolies
Ulysses S. Grant
Tried to shut down KKK/administration laden with scandals
Women’s Christian Temperance Union
Women concerned with alcohol’s impact on family
Wade-Davis Bill
Rad Republicans demand majority loyalty oath/Lincoln vetoes
National Woman’s Suffrage Association
Founded by Stanton and Anthony-for women’s suffrage
Greenback Party
In favor of government-controlled paper money supply
13th 14th 15th Amendments
End slavery/citizen rights/black suffrage
Turn of Century-WWI
Yellow Journalism
Emphasis on scandals/Hearst to drum up war support
Wabash case
States can’t prevent railroad laws/to Interstate Commerce Act
United States v. Knight Co.
Limits government control of monopolies
Rough Riders
TR leads volunteers up San Juan Hill in Cuba
Populist Party/platform
Stemmed from Farmer’s Alliances-anti-gold standard
Booker T. Washington
Born as slave/education avenue for success/dinner with TR
Joseph Pulitzer
Linked with yellow journalism/prizes start in 1917
Queen Lilliuokalani/Hawaii
Monarch manipulated to abdicate throne/Hawaii in US
Temperance society
Women concerned with lost money/domestic violence
Fredrick Jackson Turner
Thesis asserted power of frontier in our character
William McKinley
Trickle down econ/imperialism with Spanish American War
Knights of Labor
Started Labor Day-lofty goals to level out wealth
William Randolph Hearst
Got Spanish American War fever up/yellow journalism
Benjamin Harrison
High tariff and federal spending
Samuel Gompers
Founded AFL-pragmatism for workers over political goals
Coxey’s Army
Unemployed march to D.C. to protest/Wants govt help
Eugene V. Debs
Pullman Strike in jail/Socialist founder of Ind World Workers
James Garfield
Killed by man mad at not getting job/spawns Pendleton Act
Jones Act
Act moving the Philippines towards independence
Thomas A. Edison
Invented light bulb and phonograph-over 1,000 inventions
William Jennings Bryan
4 time runner-up/Pro silver/goes after Scopes in Monkey trial
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Advocated naval power/prompted build-ups before WWI
U.S.S. Maine
Blow-up prompted U.S. involvement to remove Spanish
Pullman Strike
Debs gets arrested and becomes socialist from prison
Wilson-Gorman Tariff
Lowered tariffs from 1890-proposed 2% income tax
American Federation of Labor
Gompers-non-political-focus on pay/job control
American Protective Association
Anti-Catholic/Orange Order from Ireland/2.5 million
Spanish-American war
US occupy Philippines and liberation of Cuba from Spain
Open Door Policy
All countries have equal chance to trade with China
Pendleton Act
Establishes Civil Service Commission against patronage
Sherman Antitrust act
To restrain monopolies/used vs.unions
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
More silver for govt/retracted in 1893 depression to save gold
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire
Death of workers ignites movement for fairness to workers
Bland-Allison act
Temporary victory for silver to inflate currency/not enforced
Standard Oil Co. v. United States
Standard Oil found to be guilty of monopolizing oil
Gentlemen’s Agreement
Only professional men to US/US agrees not to segregate
Fisk-Gould scandal
Attempt to corner the gold market
Interstate Commerce Act
Federal government regulates interstate trade for fair rates
Northern Securities Co v. United States
Vouched against stockholders who were funding a monopoly
Credit Mobilier scandal
With transcontinental railroad/Congressmen get cheap shares
“Cross of Gold” speech
Bryan to make silver the money standard
U.S. Steel Corporation
Morgan combines Carnegie’s Steel industry with others
Boxer Rebellion
Chinese rebellion against foreign influence
The Philippines
America kicked Spanish out (1898) and then occupies
Tin Pan Alley
Music in early 1900 New York/generally played the blues
Clayton Antitrust act
Enforces Sherman Anti-trust Act but protects unions/farmers
Puerto Rico, Samoa, Guam
Territories occupied during Spanish American War
McKinley Tariff
Supported high tariff to protect American industries
Filipino insurrection
Rebellion against American occupation
Haymarket Square riot
“Anarchists”/labor fight police in Chicago-black eye on labor
Pure food and Drug act
Government to inspect food-Sinclair’s The Jungle
Roosevelt Corollary
TR asserts that US can intervene in Latin America
Platt Amendment
US to get out of Cuba after Spanish American War
Plessy v. Ferguson
Louisiana/Separate but Equal/Plessy was 7/8 white
Panama Canal
TR pushed for it/connects Atlantic and Pacific
Upton Sinclair
Wrote The Jungle-anarchist and socialist
William Howard Taft
Pinchot-Ballinger scandal/strong on trusts?/also S.C. Justice
Theodore Roosevelt
Fair deal between labor-business/conservation/aggressive
Volstead Act
Allows for passage of 18th Amendment of prohibition
Homestead Strike
Strike at Carnegie steel plant/Pinkertons agents break it up
Joe Hill
Radical labor leader-member of IWW-martyred after death
Writers exposing society’s inequalities and problems
WEB DuBois-National Association Advance Colored People
From Populist party-sought fairness for all in domestic issues
The Urban League
Gave structural framework for civil rights
16th Amendment
Allows income tax /advocated by Populists, then progressives
17th Amendment
Allows Senate popular vote/previously by state legislatures
18th Amendment
Prohibition of alcohol/created underworld of crime
Woodrow Wilson
Set up Federal Reserve/tried to keep us out of WWI
Woman’s Trade Union League
Organized to help women’s rights-working in sweat shops
Federal Trade Commission Act
Pushed by Progressives to ensure fair trade
Meat Inspection Act
Secr. of Agriculture regulates food safety-The Jungle
Fourteen Points
Gave moral authority to Allies/caused Germany to surrender
Zimmerman telegram
From Germany to Mexico for alliance vs. US/gets US in war
“Peace without Victory”
Wilson’s-treaty for long-term peace and not revenge
Triple Entente
Alliance between Britain, France, and Russia for protection
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy for self-protection
Germans to block supplies coming to the Allies from US
Sunk by German U-boats/128 US killed/gets US closer to war
Russo-Japanese war
Conflict over Manchuria and Korea/TR negotiated peace
Ashcan School
Realistic art movement showing tough lives of the poor
Jacob Riis
Exposed tough tenement life in “How the Other Half Lives”
National Municipal League
Momentum from 1893 Panic-vs city govt corruption
Federal Reserve Act
Central bank to regulate interest rates/moderate economy
The Wright Brothers
Invent and build first airplane-N. Carolina bike shop
World War I
France/GB/Russia/US vs. Germany/Austria Hungary/Ottoman
Marxist believers establish communism/Soviet Union
Archduke Ferdinand
Heir to Austria Hungary throne-assassination prompts WWI
Submarine warfare
WWI-WWII waged by Germany vs. American help to Allies
National War Labor Board
Intended to mediate disputes between labor/business
Treaty of Versailles
Requires Germany to disarm/pay war reparations
Sedition Act
Forbids language offensive to the US or the flag
Selective Service Act
Allows for the draft prior to World Wars
Espionage Act
Crime to make law interfering with Armed Forces-WWI
Abrams v. United States
Made in a criminal act to criticize the U.S.
Schenck v. United States
Supreme Court not to protect insubordinate talk in war
Atomic bomb
First tested in Almogordo, N.M./on Hiroshima/Nagasaki
Axis Alliance
Italy/Germany/Japan alliance-(Rome/Berlin/Tokyo)
Harlem Renaissance
Flowering of black cultural and intellectual movement
New Deal
FDR’s relief/recovery/reform from Great Depression
18th-21st amendments/1/3 less overall alcohol/gangster era
More widespread in 1920’s-allows FDR’s Fireside Chats
Bonus Expeditionary Force
17,000 WWI vets demand benefits-not ‘till 1945?
Allied invasion of Normandy/Omaha Beach brutal at start
Japanese American Internment
Japanese interned during WWII/apology in ‘88 plus $20,000
The Jazz Singer
First full-length motion picture with talking sequences
Scopes Monkey trail
Creation vs. evolution in classroom/Bryan vs. Darrow
Stock Market Crash
Massive drop creates Great Depression
World War II
Japan/Germany/Italy vs. US/Britain/France/Russia
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
Organized by Huey Long-industrial unions
Calvin Coolidge
Laissez-faire-big business over labor-Boston Police Strike
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Wrote Great Gatsby during the ‘20’s
Henry Ford
Assembly lines-founded Motor Company-1920’s prosperity
Marcus Garvey
Separatism, not assimilation during 1920’s-back to Africa
Warren G. Harding
Teapot Dome Scandal/laissez faire/jovial but incompetent
Ernest Hemingway
Stoic males good under pressure-saw Spanish Civil War
Adolph Hitler
Becomes chancellor in 1933 and leads Nazi party
Herbert Hoover
Conserved during WWI-lack of action-blamed for Depression
International Workers of the World
Objective to unite all workers-(IWW)-called Wobblies
Sinclair Lewis
Critical of US capitalism/progressive on working women
Charles Lindbergh
Spirit of St. Louis from NY to Paris/baby kidnapped/isolationist
General Douglas MacArthur
WWII Pacific theater general/fired by Truman after-Korea
Benito Moussolini
Fascist Prime Minister-nationalism/corporatism/militarism
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
New Deal during Great Depression and WWII
Sacco and Vanzetti
Executed on prejudice vs anarchists, draft dodgers, & Italians
Margaret Sanger
Fought for birth control for women-coined name birth control
Hideki Tojo
Prime minister of Japan during WWII/sentenced to death
Camp David
Retreat-Accords help relations between Israel/Egypt
August 6-Little Boy dropped here-140,000 killed
Los Alamos
Site for Manhattan Project to establish nuclear bomb
August 15-Fat Man-prompted Japanese surrender
Pearl Harbor
80% vs. war before/now war declaration fastest bill to go
19th Amendment
Women suffrage-already in some states (Wyoming-Utah)
21st Amendment
Repeal of 18th amendment/end of prohibition
Agricultural Adjustment Act
Subsidize farmers to not farm land and reduce surplus
Civilian Conservation Corps
Designed to provide people with jobs
Emergency Banking Relief bill
Bank Holiday-FDR closes banks for record check
Emergency Quota Act
Limits immigration from Europe, especially S and E Europe
Fair Labor Standards Act
Allows for payment of overtime/minimum wage
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Money up is ensured-stimulates confidence
Federal Emergency Relief Act
First New Deal Program-provide $20 million in direct aid
Fordney McCumber Act
Raise tariffs/reflects isolationism/protect domestic industry
Glass-Steagall Banking act
Sets up FDIC and separates banks into specific types
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR to Latin America-pledge to be less invasive in politics
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
Raise in tariffs diminishes trade, worsening Great Depression
Kellogg-Briand Pact
French and US seek to renunciate war from being an option
Korematsu v. United States
US had authority to put Japanese into concentration camps
Lend Lease Act
Lent $50 billion to help allies in War
Munich Agreement
Permitted Germany to annex Sudetenland of/appeasement
National Industrial Recovery Act
President can regulate business-control prices if necessary
Nazi-Soviet Pact
Pact between USSR and Germany/violated by Hitler in 1941
Neutrality Act
Isolated from Europe-Washington warned-stay alliances
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Hoover gave $2 billion in state aid and loans to businesses
Schecter v. United States
Struck down program/FDR vs. Supreme Court
Securities Exchange Commission
Regulates security laws and stock market
Social Security Administration
Intended to pay for pensions for elderly
Tennessee Valley Authority
New Deal program to provide flood control/electricity
Tripartite Pact
Alliance of Japan, Italy, and Germany
“Voice of America”
Intended to give news to soldiers during WWII-outside US
Wagner Act/ National Labor relations Act
Allows for unions to form and collectively bargain
Washington Naval Conference
Intended to disarm all nations and prevent future wars
Works Progress Administration
Largest New Deal Agency-8 million employed from this
Cold War-present
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT)
Froze the number of nuclear missile launchers
Taft-Harley Act
Restricts union power/Congress overrides Truman’s veto
Domino Theory
Fear that if one country fell to communism, others would
Joseph McCarthy
Communist witch hunt-went too far when he went after Army
In response to Sputnik-aerospace research
Organization of American States
Formed in 1948 to keep communism from New World
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Counties
Alliance in response to US support of Israel?-set prices on oil
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Space race/interstate highway act/escalated Cold War
Harry S. Truman
Taft Hartley bill passes over veto/contain communism
National Organization for Women (NOW)
Sought to make equal opportunity in employment
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
Leftist student activist group
United Nations
Replaces league of nations for communication to avoid war
Earl Warren
Chief Justice improved civil rights/police procedure
Alger Hiss
Accused of being a spy in post WWII hysteria-guilt uncertain
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
Executed as communists and sending nuke secrets to USSR
Committee to Reelect the President (CREEP)
Involved in getting hush funds set up and Watergate-corrupt
Ronald Reagan
Tax cuts/deregulation/increase military spending
Truman and Stalin-set boundaries/Truman gave in too much?
Three Mile Island
Nuclear accident/led to reduction on nuke energy/big cleanup
Free Speech Movement, Berkley
1st campus protest for academic freedom/freedom of speech
Gerald Ford
Pardoned Nixon/Helsinke Accords move to USSR negotiation
Bay of Pigs
U.S. plan to root out Castro using Cubans-humiliating for U.S.
Richard Nixon
First pres to resign-Watergate/Social Security increase
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Formed as a counterweight to soviet armies
Sandra Day O’Connor
First woman on Supreme Court-moderate conservative
Berlin Wall
Prevents East Germans from going West/125-200 killed
Betty Freidan
2nd Feminist Rev./Feminist Mystique vs stifling women roles
James Meredith
First black student at the University of Mississippi
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
Anti-communist group/not McCarthy’s/Alger Hiss
Election-break-in at Democratic Headquarters-Nixon resigns
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
Designed to prevent communism spread in Southeast Asia
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
50’s and 60’s-moderate Civil Rights group-Martin Luther King
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC
Stokeley Carmichael the leader-Black Power
Prevent communism’s spread-based upon Domino theory
Stalin (cushion) Churchill (Europe Freedom) Roos (Jap)
Atlantic Charter
Agreement-Churchill/FDR to prevent future war after WWII
Federal Highway Act
$25 billion for 40,000 miles of highways
Full Employment Act
Government’s responsibility to regulate the economy
Lyndon Johnson
War on Poverty/Racism/Medicare/Nam escalation
John F. Kennedy
Bay of Pigs/Space Race/Cuban Missile Crisis
Robert Kennedy
JFK’s Attorney General-Civil Rights-candidate in ’68 but killed
Martin Luther King Jr.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference-1957-moderate
Henry Kissinger
Key diplomat for Nixon-detante-diplomacy with USSR
Nikita Khruschev
After Stalin-Cuba Missile Crisis-more diplomatic/humane
Gulf of Tonkin, Vietnam
In response to firing on ships, Congress empowers president
Soviet satellite to orbit earth-in response NASA/AP tests
Marshall Plan
$12 billion to revitalize Europe/Martial plan to USSR
National Defense Act
Official creation of U.S. Air Force
National Security Council
Set up by National Security Act-part of executive office
Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill)
Provided education and home loans for returning soldiers
Freedom Rides
Integrated buses as test cases vs segregation between states
Warsaw Pact
USSR response to NATO to insulate their power
Urban Riots
Civil Rights riots-110 cities after 1968 MLK assassination
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
Belief in nonviolence to achieve equality
McCarran Internal Security Act
Communist organizations to register with attorney general
Truman Doctrine
U.S. gives money to contain communism in Greece/Turkey
McCarran-Walter Immigration and Nationality act
Restricted immigration
Reduce regulation/inflation/government spending/taxes
“Iron Curtain”
Churchill names separation of Soviet vs. democratic Europe
Loyalty Boards
Screening for communists for federal jobs/led to Red Scare
Manhattan Project
Development of nuclear bomb/prompted by fears of Nazis’s
Form of non-violent protest from Civil Rights movement
Nixon’s “Enemies List”
Damage enemies through IRS tax audits
Star Wars
Reagan to defend against offensive missiles in space
War Powers Resolution
President has 60 days to extend force/limit his power
Voting Rights Act
Outlaws literacy tests/gives federal regulation for minorities
Democratic National Convention
Chaotic after assassinations of MLK and Robert Kennedy
Fall of Saigon
N. Vietnam overruns Saigon/reflects failure of Vietnamization
Iran Hostage Crisis
Showed lack of support for Shah/released day Reagan gets in
Cuban Missile Crisis
Russia withdraws missiles/US withdraws ours from Turkey
Iran-Contra Affair
Reagan-Arms to Iran and money to Nicaragua’s Contras
Army-McCarthy hearings
McCarthy picks on the military and loses reputation
Regents of University of California v. Bakke
Bars quotas to get in college but affirms affirmative action
Geneva Conference
Called for lack of change or involvement in Vietnam
Roe v. Wade
Anti-abortion laws violate 14th Amendment
Sought to curtail use of strategic nuclear weapons
Project Apollo
Part of NASA-to make landings on moon-1969 Armstrong
The Great Society
LBJ to end poverty and racism/interrupted by Vietnam
Office of Economic Opportunity
Administered LBJ’s War on poverty programs
Peace corps
Independent federal agency from John F. Kennedy
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
USSR/US would both be destroyed/nuke war deterrent
Nixon Doctrine
Allies need to address anti-communism without US
New York Times v. United States
Allowed print of Pentagon Papers on Vietnam War
Miranda v. Arizona
Suspect must be read their rights by the police
Medicare and Medicaid
For low-income workers/elderly-Poverty 22% to 12%
Gideon v. Wainwright
State courts to counsel all to have attorney
To supply S Vietnam troops and withdraw US troops
March on Washington
Political rally in D.C./King’s “I have a dream”
Helsinki Accord
Diplomacy with USSR-a step for tension relief
Furman v. Georgia
Put boundaries on what is admissible for death penalty
Engele v. Vitale
Limits school’s public prayer/keeps church/state separate
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
To clean air/helped with acid rain in 1990
Equal Rights Amendment
Guarantees equal rights for women
Escobedo v. Illinois
Criminals have right to counsel
Eisenhower Doctine
Countries with anti-communist stance for US funding
Elementary-Secondary Education and High Education Act
Funds education/part of War on Poverty
Central Intelligence Agency
Monitor other nations/from fear of communism
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Outlaws segregation in public schools/places
Korean War
US-led UN offsets N Koreans/down-up-middle-stalemate
Montgomery bus boycott
Rosa Parks/leads to SC case to desegregation
Nixon Resigns
Failed to give up 18 tape minutes/from Watergate
Paris peace talks
Americans out/guarantee of free elections in S. Vietnam
Pentagon Papers
Government had deceitfully expanded Vietnam war
Port Huron Statement
Students for Democratic Society vs weapons/racism
Saturday night Massacre
Nixon dismisses Cox/escalates Watergate scandal
Tet Offensive
Offensive by Vietcong/US realizes war’s not over
Department of Housing and Urban Development
Part of LBJ’s War on Poverty-help with ownership
Alliance for Progress
Kennedy’s program for economic tie with S. America
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Overturns Plessy-segregation unconstitutional
Baghdad Pact
Attempt by US for anti-Soviet Alliance
Baker v. Carr
Govt. draws boundaries/enforce One Man/One Vote
Black Panthers
Promote civil rights/self defense/perceived as militant
George H.W. Bush
Panama invasion/Gulf War I/Soviet Union
Jimmy Carter
Iran Hostage/Energy Crisis/Inflation/human rights
Fidel Castro
Took over power in Cuba as communist
Chicago Seven
Cause of chaos at Chicago Democratic Convention
Military-Industrial complex
US armed forces and all suppliers