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Transcript
Social
Psychology
Norms
Conformity
Obedience
Prejudice
Altruism
Before we continue…
What happened in our demonstration?
What did most people do?
What did most people NOT do?
Why?
Conformity? Why?
Obedience? Why?
Both?
Quack Like a Duck
Why did you do what you did? Didn’t?
 Conformity – Adjusting one’s behavior or
thinking (attitude) to coincide with the group
standard.
 Obedience to authority figure – Willingness to
conform to the demands of an authority.
 Social role playing
Fulfilling the expectations of one’s role
(student/teacher)
Conformity
Conformity
Social Psychology research found that under certain conditions,
people will conform to a group’s standards, even when the
group is CLEARLY WRONG.
Solomon Asch (1955)
 Pretend that you have volunteered for a “visual
perception study.”
 When you arrive, you find 7 other subjects already
seated in a row; you sit in empty chair at the end.
 The experimenter reveals 2 cards & asks you to
determine which of the 3 comparison lines is the
same length as the standard line.
 Starting
at the far end of the row away from
you, each subject is asked individually for their
answer. Everyone gives the correct answer,
and you say the “obviously correct” answer
at your turn.
 Card is changed, same process…no problem.
 Next trial, when other participants give their
response, they all choose the wrong line (all
the same wrong line!)!
 Now it’s your turn to respond again…What do
you say?
Tests Returned
 Look




over your MC Score
65 points (curved to 62) – 2/3
35/50 (70%) or better is a great goal!
Students who get 70 or better on the AP
exam pass the test with a 3, 4, or 5
Midterm Scores
Tests Returned

Look over your FRQ Score


35 points (curved to 32) – 1/3
READ THE RUBRIC and compare what you wrote
side-by-side



What did you do well?
What did you misunderstand?
How could you improve for the next test?





Did you do the review before the exam?
Did you come to the Flex review?
Do you write definitions in CCN carefully?
Do you answer rewind questions?
Do you do the mini FRQ’s in your CCN?
FRQ Content Stuff

Point 1 – Levels of the IV


Definitions don’t score alone, of course
But many people put that the IV is the variable that the
experimenter “changes”



Don’t both variables change? That is why they are variable.
The better word is “manipulates”
Point 5 – Cause and Effect





Correlation DOES NOT EVER mean causation.
ONLY experiments can prove causation.
This was an experiment, thus it proved causation.
If you used the word correlation, you might have negated your
response
BE CAREFUL
FRQ Structure Stuff



Handwriting was fantastic!
MOST people wrote in paragraph form.
MOST people underlined the key terms






*Don’t underline a million other things – just the
key term from the question
IV
DV
Cause/Effect
Statistical Significance
Debriefing
FRQ Structure Stuff

TDAA



T - You should use words from the question IN
your FRQ, especially the KEY terms (underline)
D – This is not required, but it saved SO many
people.
A – Just applying the term to the study


Ex. What is the IV? What is the DV?
A – Answering the question

Ex. What are the levels of IV? How did they
measure the DV?
Recapture





Your chance to recapture POINTS and
recapture the KNOWLEDGE to prepare for the
final exam.
Follow EVERY step and you can recapture ALL
points missed.
Skip steps and you will only recapture partial
credit.
NOT available as an option for the final exam
NOT available if you are absent on the day of
the next midterm exam (you will get only one
shot)
You may have guessed
by now that the other 7
participants were
confederates of
experimenter.
Results:
 75% of participants went
along with the group’s
consensus at least once.
 Considering all trials
combined, subjects
agreed with the group
1/3 of the time.

 Asch:

(start at 7:07)
Asch Study
 Reenactment:

Conformity Study
Why Do We conform?
Normative Social
Influence





We do not want others
to notice us
We don’t want to
stand out and be
different
We want others to like
us
We are “normal”?
We don’t want to
violate a “norm”


Informational Social
Influence
We don’t have
enough information
to decide against
conforming
It appears that
others have more
information and
“know” more than
we do.
Influence –
Normative or Informational
What is a Norm?

Unwritten social rules that govern our behavior. (not a
law or a “rule” in the structured sense)

What is the “norm” for elevators? Elevator
How is it violated?
How did the “subject” respond?



Violating a norm is NOT just “acting wacky” or
wearing crazy clothes. It is determining the “normal”
behavior and acting differently.
*Norm Violation Homework DUE: October 22
Conformity Increases When:
 one
is made to feel incompetent or insecure.
 the group has at least 3 people.
 the group is unanimous.
 one admires the group’s status.
 one has make no prior commitment to any
response (attitude actions).
 others in the group observe one’s behavior.
 one’s culture strongly encourages respect for social
standards.

PERSONAL REFLECTION
Obedience to Authority
How are compliance & conformity different?
 Conformity:
Adjusting behavior to
match a group. Any
pressure is
internal/unspoken.
 Compliance:
preceded by a command
from an individual or group
 Obedience:
The willingness to comply
with the DEMANDS of
authority (a group or
individiual).
Obedience to Authority
How far will we go to follow the orders of an
authority figure?
Stanley Milgrim (1963)
 One of the most famous and widely
recognized psychological studies.
 Raised the ethics of using humans in
research.
 Wanted to understand WWII atrocities.
Methods



Imagine you and another participant arrive at
a laboratory for an experiment called "The
Effects of Punishment on Learning."
After being greeted by an experimenter, he
randomly assigns you to be the "teacher" and
the other participant to be the "learner."
The learner is led to another room and
hooked up to a shock machine.
Mr. Wallace
Methods




The teacher reads a list of word pairs
(Example: “clear” goes with “air.”).
If the answer is wrong, the learner receives a
shock.
With each mistake, you move to the next
lever administering a more intense shock
(begins at 15 volts, increases by 15v each
lever to 450v).
You don’t know it, but the “learner” is a
confederate of the experimenter. Everything
is scripted.
What would you do?
Prediction: Average estimate was 1.2% to
450 volts; average estimated response
was 135 volts.
Results:
 26 out of 40 (65%) went to 450 volts.
Voltage
75
120
150
200
300
330+
Learner response
grunts
shouts in pain
says he refuses to continue
blood-curdling screams
refuses to answer, heart condition
silence
Experimenter response
1. Please continue
2. The experiment requires you to continue.
3. It is absolutely essential that you continue.
4. You have no other choice but to continue.
Further Applications
 Hoffling



Nurses
Doctor orders
Over medication
 The


Third Wave
Ron Jones
The Wave
Strengthening Obedience
1.
The person giving orders is close and perceived
as an authority.
1.
2.
The person is supported by prestigious title.
1.
3.
Dr.
The victim is depersonalized.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Lab coat/clip board/nearby
In another room
Mask over face (Zimbardo prison)
Referred to as “learner” or “prisoner # …”
There were no role models for disobedience or
defiance.
1.
What happened to those role models in Zimbardo’s
study?
What is a Norm?
Unwritten social rules that govern our behavior.
(not a law or a “rule” in the structured sense)
What is the “norm” you violated – start with what people expected
you to do.
How/where did you violate the norm?
How did you feel before?
How did you feel after?
How did people respond (behaviors only, unless you explain how
you know the internal stuff)?
Footage
http://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=fCVlI-_4GZQ
Extra Credit
*Write your answer and fold the paper
*No Names!! (anonymous)
Yes = Give me alone extra credit (20
points)
*If there is more than one yes,
nobody gets extra credit
No = Don’t give me extra credit
*If EVERYONE writes no, everyone
gets extra credit (5 points)