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Transcript
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Final Review - Define and explain each of the following objectives:
Unit 1: The Nature of Science
Chapter 1: The Science of Biology:
Explain what science is, what a hypothesis is
Describe how scientist test hypotheses
Explain how a scientific theory develops
Describe some characteristics of living things and how life can be studied at different levels
Describe the measurement system most scientists use
Explain how light and electron microscopes are different and similar
Describe 2 common laboratory techniques
Explain why it is important to work safely in biology.
Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life
Identify the 3 main subatomic particles
Explain how isotopes of an element are similar and different
Explain what chemical compounds are
Describe the 2 main types of chemical bonds
Explain why water molecules are polar
Differentiate between solutions and suspensions
Explain what acidic and basic solutions are.
Describe the functions of each group of organic compounds
Explain how chemical reactions affect bonds in compounds, and how energy changes affect chemical
reactions
Explain why enzymes are important to living things
Unit 2: Ecology
Chapter 3: The Biosphere
Identify the levels of organization and the methods that ecologists use.
Identify the source of energy for life processes
Trace the flow of energy through living systems
Evaluate the efficiency of energy transfer among organisms in an ecosystem
Explain how matter cycles among living and non-living things in an ecosystem
Explain why nutrients are important in living systems
Describe how the availability of nutrients affects the productivity of ecosystems
Chapter 4: Ecosystems and Communities
Identify the causes of climate change
Explain how Earth’s temperature range is maintained
Identify Earth’s three main climate zones
Explain how biotic/ abiotic factors influence an ecosystem
Identify interactions that occur within communities
Describe how ecosystems recover from disturbance
Explain what microclimates are
Identify the characteristics of major land biomes
Identify the factors that govern aquatic ecosystems
Identify the two types of freshwater ecosystems
Describe the characteristics of the marine zones
Chapter 5: Populations
List the characteristics used to describe a population
Identify factors that affect population size
Differentiate between exponential and logistic growth
Identify factors that limit population growth
Differentiate between density-dependent and density-independent limiting factors
Describe how the size of the human population has changed over time
Explain why population growth rates differ in countries throughout the world
Chapter 6: Humans in the Biosphere
Describe human activities that can affect the biosphere
Explain how environmental resources are classified
Identify the characteristics of sustainable development
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Describe how human activities affect land, air, and water resources
Define biodiversity and explain its value
Identify current threats to biodiversity
Describe the goal of conservation biology
Describe two types of global change that are of concern to biologist
Unit 2: Cells and Energy
Chapter 7: Cell structure and Function
Explain what the cell theory is
Distinguish between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
Describe the function of the major cell organelles
Identify the main functions of the cell membrane and the cell wall
Explain the processes of diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and active transport
Describe cell specialization
Identify the organization levels in multicellular organisms
Chapter 8: Photosynthesis
Explain where plants get the energy they need to produce food.
Describe the role of ATP in cellular activities
State the overall equation of photosynthesis
Describe the role of light and chlorophyll in photosynthesis
Describe the structure and function of chloroplasts
Describe what happens during the light-dependent reactions and Calvin cycle
Identify factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis
Chapter 9: cellular Respiration
Explain what cellular respiration is
Describe what happens during the process of glycolysis
Name the 2 main types of fermentation
Describe what happens during the Krebs Cycle
Explain how high-energy electrons are used by the ETC
Identify 3 pathways the body uses to release energy during exercise
Compare photosynthesis and cellular respiration
Chapter 10: Cell Growth and Division
Explain the problems that growth causes for cells, and how cell division solves these problems
Describe what happens during the main events of cell division
Describe how the cell cycle is regulated and name some regulators
Explain how cancer cells are different from other cells
Unit 3: Genetics
Chapter 11: Introduction to Genetics
Summarize Mendel’s conclusions about inheritance
Explain the principle of dominance
Describe what happens during segregation
Describe how genetics use the principles of probability and Punnett squares
Explain the principle of independent assortment
Describe other inheritance patterns
Explain how Mendel’s principles apply to other organisms
Summarize the events of meiosis
Contrast meiosis and mitosis
Identify the structures that actually assort independently
Chapter 12: DNA and RNA
Summarize the relationship between genes and DNA
Describe the structure of DNA
Summarize the events of DNA replication
Relate the DNA molecule to chromosome structure
Tell how RNA differs from DNA
Name the 3 main types of RNA
Describe transcription and editing of RNA
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Identify the genetic code
Summarize translation
Explain the relationship between genes and proteins
Contrast gene mutations and chromosomal mutations
Describe a typical gene
Describe how lac genes are turned on and off
Explain how must eukaryotic genes are controlled
Relate gene regulation to development.
Chapter 13: Genetic Engineering
Explain the purpose of selective breeding
Describe two techniques used in selective breeding
Explain why breeders try to induce mutations
Explain how scientists manipulate DNA
Describe the usefulness of transgenic organisms
Summarize the main steps in cloning
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Chapter 14: THE HUMAN GENOME:
- Identify the types of human chromosomes in a karyotype.
Explain how sex is determined.
Explain how pedigrees are used to study human traits.
Describe how natural selection is used in artificial selection.
Explain how small changes in DNA cause genetic disorders.
UNIT 5- EVOLUTION:
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Chapter 15: DARWIN'S THEORY OF EVOLUTION
- Describe the pattern Darwin observed among organisms of the
Galapagos Islands.
State how Hutton and Lyell described geological change
Describe Malthus’ theory of population growth
Describe how natural selection is used in artificial selection.
Explain how natural selection is related to species' fitness.
State Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection.
 Chapter 16: EVOLUTION OF POPULATIONS
- Explain what a gene pool is.
Identify the main sources of inheritable variation in a population.
State what determines how a phenotype is expressed.
Explain how natural selection affects single-gene and polygenic traits.
Describe genetic drift.
List the five conditions to maintain genetic equilibrium.
Identify the condition necessary for a new species to evolve.
Chapter 17: The History of Life
Describe the fossil record
Compare relative dating and radioactive dating
Describe the early Earth environment
Explain what Miller and Urey's experiments showed.
Identify some of the main evolutionary steps in the early evolution of life
Identify important patterns of macroevolution
 Chapter 18: CLASSIFICATION
- Explain how living things are organized.
Describe binomial nomenclature.
Explain how evolutionary relationships are important in classification.
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Identify the principle behind cladistic analysis.
Explain how we can compare very dissimilar organisms.
Name the six kingdoms of life as they are now identified.
Describe the 3-domain system of classification.
UNIT 6- MICROORGANISMS AND FUNGI:
 Chapter 19: BACTERIA AND VIRUSES
- Explain how the 2 groups of Prokaryote differ.
Describe the factors used to identify prokaryotes.
Explain why bacteria are vital to maintaining the living world.
Describe the structure of a virus.
Explain how viruses cause infection.
Explain how bacteria cause disease.
Describe how bacterial growth can be controlled.
Explain how viruses cause disease.
 Chapter 20: PROTISTS
- Explain what a protist is.
Describe the major phyla of animallike protists.
Explain how animallike protists harm other living organisms.
Describe the function of chlorophyll and accessory pigments in algae.
Describe the major phyla of unicellular algae.
Summarize the ecological role of unicellular algae.
 Chapter 21: FUNGI
- Identify the defining characteristics of fungi.
Describe the main structures of a fungus.
Explain what the ecological role of fungi is.
Describe the problems that parasitic fungi cause.
Describe the kinds of mutualistic relationships that fungi form with other
organisms.
UNIT 7- PLANT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION:
 Chapter 22: PLANT DIVERSITY
- Explain what a plant is.
Describe what plants need to survive.
Describe how the first plants evolved.
Bryophytes: describe their adaptation, the 3 groups, how they reproduce.
Seedless vascular Plants: explain how vascular tissue is important to ferns and
their relatives, describe the 3 phyla, and identify the stages in the life cycle of ferns.
Seed Plants: describe their reproductive adaptations, their evolution, identify the 4
groups of gymnosperms.
Angiosperms: identify their characteristics, explain what monocots and dicots are,
and describe the 3 different life spans of angiosperms.
 Chapter 23: ROOTS, STEMS, AND LEAVES
- Describe the organs and tissues of vascular plants.
Identify the specialized cells of vascular tissue.
Contrast meristematic tissue with other plant tissues.
Describe the 3 main types of roots.
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Identify the tissues and structures in a mature root.
Describe the different functions of roots.
Describe the 3 main functions of stems.
Contrast monocot and dicot stems.
Explain how primary and secondary growths occur in stems.
Describe how the structure of a leaf enables it to carry out photosynthesis.
Describe how gas exchange takes place in a leaf.
Explain how water is transported throughout a plant.
Describe how the products of photosynthesis are transported throughout the plant.
Chapter 24: REPRODUCTION OF SEED PLANTS
Identify the reproductive structures of gymnosperms and angiosperms
Explain how pollination and fertilization differ between angiosperms and
gymnosperms.
Describe the development of seeds and fruits.
Explain how seeds are dispersed.
List the factors that influence the dormancy and germination of seeds.
Chapter 25: PLANT RESPONSES AND ADAPTATIONS
Summarize how plants are adapted to different environments.
Describe how plants obtain nutrients.
Explain how plants use chemical defenses.
UNIT 8- Invertebrates
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Chapter 26:
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List the characteristics that all animals share
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Describe the essential functions that animals carry out
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Identify the important trends in animal evolution
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Chapter 29:
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Describe the major trends in invertebrate evolution
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Describe how different invertebrate phyla carry out their essential life functions
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Chapter 30:
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Identify the characteristics that all chordates share.
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Explain what vertebrates are.
Unit 9 - Vertebrates
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Chapter 33:
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Explain what the roots of the chordate family tree are
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Summarize a main trend in evolution of chordates
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Explain how the control of body temperature is an important aspect of vertebrate life
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Contrast ectotherms with endotherms
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Describe how the organ systems of the different groups of chordates carry out essential
life functions
Unit 10 The Human Body
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Chapters 35:
Describe the structures and functions of:
Nervous system
Integumentary system
Respiratory system
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Skeletal system
Muscular system
Digestive and excretory systems
Circulatory system
Endocrine and reproductive systems
Lymphatic and immune systems.
Define Homeostasis.
- Explain negative feedback.
Explain positive feedback.
Describe the functions of the central nervous system and the two divisions of the
peripheral nervous system.
Chapters 36:
- Describe the structure of a typical bone and explain how bones develop
- Describe the three types of muscle tissues.
- Explain how muscles contract.
- Explain why exercise is important.
- Describe the structure of hair and nails.
Chapter 37:
Identify the functions and structures of the circulatory system
Name the three types of blood vessels
explain the functions of red and white blood cells and plasma cells
describe the role of the lymphatic system
describe respiration and the function of the respiratory system
explain how smoking affects the respiratory system
Chapter 38
explain how food provides energy
identify and describe the functions of the organs of the digestive system
identify the functions of the kidneys
explain how blood is filtered
Chapter 39
State the function of the endocrine system
describe hormones and glands
explain how the endocrine system maintains homeostasis
identify the functions of the major endocrine glands
explain the functions of the male and female reproductive systems
Chapter 40
identify the causes of disease
explain how infectious diseases are transmitted
describe how antibiotics fight infection
identify the body's nonspecific defenses against invading pathogens
describe the function of the immune system
explain what an autoimmune disease is
describe how HIV is transmitted and affects the immune system