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Transcript
Chapter 19: From Stalemate to Crisis
I. The Politics of Equilibrium
 In the late 19th century, most Americans engaged in political activity because of broad regional, ethnic, and
religious sentiments
A. The Party System
 From the end of Reconstruction to the late 1890s, the electoral was divided almost precisely evenly
 Republican Party captured the presidency in all but two of the elections of the era
 In the five presidential elections beginning in 1876, the average popular-vote margin separating the
Democratic and Republican candidates was 1.5%
 Republicans generally controlled the Senate, the Democrats generally controlled the House
 Voter turn out in presidential elections between 1860 and 1900 averaged over 78% of eligible voters
 Party loyalties reflected many factors: region was the most important, religious & ethnic differences & church
 Democrats attracted Catholic voters, recent immigrants and poorer voters
 Republicans appealed to northern Protestants and the middle-class
B. The National Government
 Govt. in Washington was responsible for delivering mail, maintaining a national military, conducting foreign
policy, and collecting tariffs and taxes
 Federal govt. had been active for decades supporting the economic development of the nation
o Gave subsidies to RR, usually in the form of grants of federal land
 President Cleveland’s intervention in the Pullman strikes suggested the govt. was not averse to using its
military and police power to protect capitalists from challenges from their workers
 Between the end of the Civil War and the early 20th century, the federal govt. administered annual pensions for
the retired Union Civil War workers and their widows
 Reformers pressured the govt. to create a system of old-age pensions for all Americans
C. Presidents and Patronage
 A new president and his tiny staff had to make almost 100,000 appointments
o Most of them in the post office, the only real large govt. agency
 Presidents had limited latitude; had to avoid offending various fractions w/in their own parties
 At the end of Rutherford B. Hayes’ presidency, the Stalwarts—led by Roscoe Conkling—and the HalfBreeds—led by James G. Blaine—were competing for control of the Republican Party
 Garfield tried to defy the Stalwarts by showing civil service reform and it led to his assassination
 Pendleton Act required some federal jobs to be filled by written examinations rather than patronage
D. Cleveland, Harrison, and the Tariff
 In the election of 1884, religious controversy may have been the deciding factory; Democratic candidate
Grover Cleveland was victorious
 Cleveland was respected for his stern and righteous opposition to politicians, grafters, pressure groups &
Tammany Hall: he became famous as the “veto governor”
 Cleveland doubted the wisdom of protective tariffs (taxes on imported goods designed to protect domestic
producers)
 In December 1887, Cleveland asked Congress to reduce tariffs, which became an issue in the election of 1888;
Republican candidate Benjamin Harrison was victorious
E. New Public Issues
 By the mid-1880s, fifteen western and southern states had adopted laws prohibiting combinations that
restrained competition
 Responding to popular demands, Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in July 1890
o Not likely to have any real effect on corporate power because it was indifferently enforced and steadily
weakened by the courts-had virtually no impact
 Highest protective measure ever proposed to Congress was the McKinley Tariff
 Policies of Cleveland’s second term were devoted to minimal govt. and hostile to active efforts to deal w/
social or economic problems

Interstate Commerce Act banned discrimination in rates between long and short hauls, required RR to publish
their rate schedules & file them with the govt, and declared all rates be “reasonable and just”
II. The Agrarian Revolt
 Farmers frustration w/ federal govt. led to one of the most powerful movements, known as Populism
A. The Grangers
 The Grange appeared in 1860s as a social & self-help association for farmers
o Depression of 1873 turned it into an agency of political change
 As membership grew, lodges in the Midwest began to focus less on social benefits & more on economic
possibilities
 They urged cooperative political action to curb monopolistic practices of the railroads & warehouses
 Grangers worked to elect state legislators pledged to their program and managed to gain control of legislatures
in most Midwestern states
 Their purpose was to subject the RR to govt. control
 Some Granger coops survived, but the movement as a whole dwindled rapidly
B. The Farmers Alliances
 Farmers in Texas were banding together in so-called farmer alliances in 1875
 Alliances were principally concerned w/ local problems; they formed coops, established stores, banks &
processing plants
 Some alliance leaders saw movement as an effort to build a society in which economic competition might give
way to cooperation
 Alliances were notable for the prominent role of women; they were full voting members and even held offices
 Economic frustration helped push the movement into creation of a national political organization
 In July 1892, delegates met in Omaha, NE to create new political party, approve official set of principles &
nominate candidates for presidency & vice presidency
 Official name became the People’s Party, but its members were known as Populists
 Election of 1892 demonstrated potential power of the movement; party elected 3 governors, 5 senators and 10
congressmen
C. The Populist Constituency
 In the Midwest, Populists were usually family farmers struggling to save their land
 In the South, many were modest landowners & significant numbers were sharecroppers & tenant farmers
 Most Populists had one thing in common: they were engaged in a type of farming that was less viable in the
face of new mechanized and commercial agriculture
 Populism never attracted significant labor support; economic interests of labor & farmers were at odds
 Endorsed “free silver,” the idea of permitting silver, along with gold, to become the basis of currency
 Most white Populists were willing to accept African American assistance as long as it was clear that whites
were in control
 Populist leaders were members of rural middle class: professionals, editors & lawyers or politicians &
agitators
D. Populist Ideas
 Reform program of the Populists was spelled out first in the Ocala Demands of 1890 and then, more clearly in
the Omaha platform of 1892
o Produced a system of “subtreasuries,” which would strengthen coops w/ both the Grangers & Alliances
 Govt. would establish network of warehouses for farmers to deposit their crops
 Populists called for abolition of national banks, end of absentee ownership of land, direct election of senators,
regulation & govt. ownership of RR, telephones, and telegraphs, and demanded a graduated income tax
 Some Populists were anti-Semitic, anti-intellectual, anti-eastern, and anti-urban
 Populism was not a challenge to industrialization or capitalism, but a response to the brutal and chaotic way
the economy was developing
III. The Crisis of the 1890s
 Beginning in 1893, there was a severe depression followed by widespread labor unrest and violence,
culminating in the strikes of 1894
A. The Panic of 1893
 Began when the Philadelphia and Reading RR declared bankruptcy; two months later, the National Cordage
Company failed as well
 The two corporate failures triggered the collapse of the stock market
 Wave of bank failures soon began & caused a contraction of credit
 Depression showed how dependent the economy was on the RR, the nation’s most powerful corporate &
financial institution
 Within six months, 8,000 businesses, 156 railroads, and 400 banks failed
 “Coxey’s Army” was a band of 500 unemployed men who marched from Masillon, Ohio to Washington D.C.
to present their demands to the govt. – Congress took no action on their demands
B. The Silver Question
 President Cleveland believed the instability of currency was the primary cause of the depression
 In the 1870s, the “mint” ratio of the value of silver to gold was 16:1
 “Crime of ‘73” referred to the belief that a conspiracy of big bankers had been responsible for the
“demonetization” of silver
 Cleveland believed the cause of the weakening gold reserves was the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890,
which required the govt. to purchase silver & pay for it in gold
 “Free silver” became a symbol of liberation & would be a “people’s money”
o It would eliminate the indebtedness of farmers and of whole regions of the country
IV. “Cross of Gold”
 -“money question” was a way to win support of people not engaged in farming but still starved for currency
A. The Emergence of Bryan
 -opposing the free coinage of silver, the Republicans settled on William McKinley for the 1896 presidential
candidate
 -William Jennings Bryan delivered the “Cross of Gold” speech and the next day was nominated for president
 -Bryan served as a potent symbol of rural, Protestant, middle-class America
 -many argued that fusion with the Democrats would destroy their identity and—ultimately—their party
B. The Conservative Victory
 -the 1896 produced desperation among conservatives
 -McKinley conducted a “front porch” campaign, while Bryan introduced modern campaigning by “running”
for office rather than “standing” for it
 Bryan was the first presidential candidate to outright say that he wanted to be president
 -McKinley won, which put an end to the Populist Party
C. McKinley and Recovery
 -the McKinley administration was characterized by the submission of the labor unrest, a decline in agrarian
protest, and a commitment to stability
 -McKinley and his allies committed themselves fully to higher tariff rates
 -The Currency Act of 1900 assigned a specific gold value to the dollar and required all currency issued by the
U.S. to adhere to that value
 -economic development seemed to vindicate the Republicans; prosperity returned in 1898, foreign crop
failures sent farm prices surging upward, and American business entered a cycle of expansion
Chapter Nineteen
I. The Politics of Equilibrium
-in the late 19th century, most Americans engaged in political activity because of broad
_________, _________, and __________ sentiments
A. The Party System
-from the end of Reconstruction to the late 1890s, the electoral was divided almost precisely
evenly; the ___________ generally controlled the Senate, the __________ generally
controlled the House
-in the five presidential elections beginning in 1876, the average popular-vote margin
separating the Democratic and Republican candidates was _________
-voter turned out in presidential elections between 1860 and 1900 averaged over _______ of
eligible voters
-individuals might affiliate with a party because their parents had or because it was the party of
their ______, _______, or _______ group
B. The National Government
-the government in Washington was responsible for delivering _____, maintaining a national
_________, conducting foreign policy, and collecting ________ and taxes
-Pullman strikes suggested that the government was not averse to using its military and police
power to protect ___________ from challenges from their _________
-reformers pressured the government to create a system of old-age __________ for all
Americans
-between the end of the Civil War and the early 20th century, the federal government
administered annual pensions for the retired __________________ workers and their widows
C. Presidents and Patronage
-a new president and his staff had to make almost 100,000 appointments (most of them in
the__________, the only real large government agency)
-presidents had ___________ latitude, since they had to avoid offending the various fractions
within their own parties
-at the end of Rutherford B. Hayes’ presidency, the __________—led by Roscoe Conkling—
and the Half-Breeds—led by ____________
___________—were competing for control of the Republican Party
-Garfield tried to defy the ___________and got assassinated
-the ______________ required some federal jobs to be filled by written examinations rather
than patronage
D. Cleveland, Harrison, and the Tariff
-in the election of 1884, ____________controversy may have been the deciding factory;
Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland was victorious
-Dr. Samuel Burchard, referred to the Democrats as the party of “______, ____________, and
rebellion”
-Cleveland doubted the wisdom of protective tariffs (taxes on ____________ goods designed
to protect ___________ producers)
-in 1887, Cleveland asked Congress to ________ tariffs which became an issue in the election
of 1888; Republican candidate ______________________ was victorious
E. New Public Issues
-by the mid-1880s, ________ western and southern states had adopted laws prohibiting
combinations that restrained competition
-responding to popular demands for antitrust legislation, Congress passed the
____________________, which had no impact
-the highest protective measure ever proposed to Congress was the ___________________
-the ______________________ banned discrimination in rates between long and short hauls,
required railroads to publish their rate schedules and file them with the government, and
declared all rates as “reasonable and just”
II. The Agrarian Revolt
-frustration with the federal government among farmers prompted one of the most powerful
movements, known as _____________
A. The Grangers
-began in 1860s as self-help association for farmers under the leadership of _____________
-he established the _______________________________________ after years of labor as
secretary; from his association emerged a network of other local organizations
-after 1873, the Grange urged cooperative political action to curb monopolistic practices of the
___________ and ____________
-began work to elect state legislators pledged to their program and managed to gain control of
legislation in most of the _____________ states
B. The Farmers Alliances (the successor to the Grange)
-most notable farmers in _________ were banding together in so-called farmer alliances in
1875
-some alliance leaders put in effort to build a society in which ___________________ might
give way to cooperation
-famous for the prominent role of __________; they were full voting members and even held
offices
-in July 1892, the Alliance merged and became the _____________________, or the Populists
C. The Populist Constituency
-Populists were significant members of _______________ and tenant farmers
-most Populists had one thing in common: they were engaged in less viable farming in the face
of a ____________ and ____________ agriculture
-endorsed the demand of “___________,” or allowing silver to become the basis of currency
along with gold
-most white Populists were willing to accept _________________ assistance as long as it was
clear that whites were in control
D. Populist Ideas
-the reform program of the Populists was spelled out first in the _____
_____________ of 1890 and then in the __________ platform of 1892
-produced a system of “_____________,” which would replace and strengthen the
cooperatives with both the Grangers and Alliances
-called for: abolition of _________, end of absentee ownership of land, ___________ of
senators, regulation of railroads, telephones, and telegrams, and a ________________
-many were anti-_________, anti-intellectual, anti-________, and anti-urban
-not a challenge to _____________ or ___________, but a response to the brutal and chaotic
development of the economy
III. The Crisis of the 1890s
-beginning in _________, there was a severe depression followed by widespread labor unrest
and violence
A. The Panic of 1893
-started when the ________________________ declared bankruptcy; two months later, the
National Cordage Company failed as well
-depression showed how dependent the economy was on the ___________, the most powerful
corporation in America
-within _____ months, 8,000 businesses, 156 railroads, and 400 banks failed
-“___________ Army” was a band of 500 unemployed men who marched from __________,
Ohio to Washington, D.C. on foot to present their demands to the government
B. The Silver Question
-Cleveland believed ____________________________ was the primary cause of the
depression
-in the 1870s, the “mint” ration of the value of silver to the value of gold was ___:___
-the _____________ referred to the belief that a conspiracy of big bankers had been
responsible for the “demonetization” of silver
-Cleveland believed the cause of the weakening gold reserves was the
________________________ of 1890, which required the government to purchase silver and
pay for it in gold
-supporters believed “free silver” would eliminate the ___________ of farmers and of whole
regions of the country
IV. “Cross of Gold”
-the “_________________” seemed a way to win support of people not engaged in farming
but still starved for currency
A. The Emergence of Bryan
-opposing the free coinage of silver, the Republicans settled on ____________________ for
the 1896 presidential candidate
-William Jennings Bryan delivered the “Cross of Gold” speech and the next day was
____________________
-Bryan served as a potent symbol of rural, ___________, middle-class America
-many argued that fusion with the _____________ would destroy their identity and—
ultimately—their party
B. The Conservative Victory
-the 1896 victory produced desperation among conservatives
-McKinley conducted a “__________” campaign, while Bryan introduced modern
campaigning by “__________” for office rather than “standing” for it
- ____________ was the first presidential candidate to outright say that he wanted to be
president
-McKinley won, which put an end to the _______________
C. McKinley and Recovery
-the McKinley administration was characterized by the submission of the labor unrest, a
decline in __________ protest, and a commitment to ___________
-McKinley and his allies committed themselves fully to ____________ rates
-The ___________ of 1900 assigned a specific gold value to the dollar and required all
currency issued by the U.S. to adhere to that value
-___________________ seemed to vindicate the Republicans; prosperity returned in 1898,
foreign crop failures sent farm prices surging upward, and American business entered a cycle
of expansion
V. Conclusion
-a series of worthy, but dull, presidents presided over this political system as symbols of its
___________________
-battles between _____________ and workers intensified
-American ___________ became resentful of the decline in fortunes
-men and women grew angry about ______________
Chapter Nineteen
Shelby Burton
A.J. Colpaert
5th Hour
May 19, 2010